The Effect of Bottle Scratches and Lime Juice on Natural Solar Radiation Disinfection (SODIS) Techniques on Different Bacterial Colonies at ShoaRobit and Surrounding Rural Kebeles
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 57-64
Received: Dec. 1, 2015;
Accepted: Dec. 11, 2015;
Published: Apr. 13, 2017
Views 2076 Downloads 79
Solomon Mulaw Sahel, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Debrebirhan University, Debrebirhan, Ethiopia
Neway Belachew, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Debrebirhan University, Debrebirhan, Ethiopia
Haftu Gebretsadik, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Debrebirhan University, Debrebirhan, Ethiopia
Giday Gebregziabher, Department of Chemistry, College of Natural and Computational Science, Debrebirhan University, Debrebirhan, Ethiopia
Over one billion people on Earth do not have access to clean drinking water. Several nonprofit and government organizations are promoting low cost, household methods for water purification [1, 2]. One of best alternative approach for equator and temperate region including Ethiopia is solar water disinfection or SODIS. The previous work done at Shoarobit and Surrounding Rural Kebeles, shows that SODIS treatment with clear 1.5 bottles and low turbidity, disinfection is efficient at the end of six hours . However frequently use of the same bottle cause for scratch on the surface of the bottle. Hence this paper addresses effect of bottle scratch and lemon juice (as a catalyst) on solar disinfection. Different level of scratches, Less scratch bottle (LSB), Slightly Scratch Bottle (SSB) and Highly Scratch Bottle (HSB) was analyzed. Since SODIS treatment is mainly due to UV radiation, causes for lysis the DNA of microorganisms, if it is not passes through the surface of the bottle the method became inefficient. From the result it was obtained that there is significance statistical difference between densities of scratched bottles. The disinfection efficiency different scratch bottle is decreases as the following order LSB > SSB > HSB. In addition it was tested that effect of lemon juice on solar disinfection. The pH decrease (acidity increase) and solar disinfection has a synergic effect. This was shown the disinfection efficiency increase accordingly the following pH order: pH = 3 > pH = 5 > pH = 7. In conclusion at the end of six hours almost all bacterial colonies was disinfected in all forms of scratching bottles and this disinfection efficiency of the method enhance with adding lemon juice.
Solomon Mulaw Sahel,
The Effect of Bottle Scratches and Lime Juice on Natural Solar Radiation Disinfection (SODIS) Techniques on Different Bacterial Colonies at ShoaRobit and Surrounding Rural Kebeles, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2017, pp. 57-64.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bosshard, F., Berney, M., Scheifele, M., Weilenmann, H.-U., &Egli, T. (2009). Solar disinfection (SODIS) and subsequent dark storage of Salmonella typhimurium and Shigellaflexneri monitored by flow cytometry. Microbiology, 155, 1310–1317.
Kayaga S, Reed B, -TN-05(2009) Emergency treatment of drinking water at point of use‖. WHO/WEDC. 5.4, Final Draft.
Murray, C. & Lopez, A. (1997). Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global burden of disease study. The Lancet 349, 1436–1442.
Conroy, R. M., Meegan, M., Joyce, T., McGuigan, K. G., Barnes, J., (1999). Solar disinfection of water reduces diarrhoealdisease: an update. Archives ofDiseasesin Children 81, 337–338.
WHO (World Health Organization), (2002). Report Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Retrieved 12.1.2008 at .
IDRC International Development Research Center Science for Humanity, Water Disinfection using Solar Radiation,, 1998, Ottawa, Canada.
Oyarza, O. A., Nogueira, M. C. L., Gombas, D. E. (2003). Survival of Escherichia coli O157: H7, Listeria mono cytogenes, and Salmonella in Juice Concentrates, J. Food Prot. 66 (9), 1595–1598.
S. C. Kehoe, T. M. Joyce, P. Ibrahim, J. B. Gillespie, R. A. Shahar, K. G. McGuigan, (2001), Effect of agitation, turbidity, aluminium foil reflectors and container volume on the inactivation efficiency of batch-process solar disinfectors, Water Res. 35, 1061–1065.
S. K. Mani, R. Kanjur, I. S. Bright Singh, R. H. Reed, (2006), Comparative effectiveness of solar disinfection using small-scale batch reactors with reflective, absorptive and transmissive rear surfaces, Water Res. 40 721–727.
B. Sommer, A. Marino, Y. Solarte, M. L. Salas, C. Dierolf, C. Valiente, D. Mora, R. Rechsteiner, P. Setter, W. Wirojanagud, H. Ajarmeh, A. AlHassan, M. Wegelin, (1997) SODIS an emerging water treatment process, J. Water SRT – Aqua 46 127–137.
R. H. Reed, (1997) Solar inactivation of faecal bacteria in water: the critical role of oxygen, Lett. Appl. Microbiol 24, 276–280.
R. H. Reed, (2004) The inactivation of microbes by sunlight: solar disinfection as a water treatment process, Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 54, 333–365.
M. N. T. M. Baker ( 1981)The Quest for Pure Water: The History of the Twentieth Century, AWWA.
Ghanem R. A ( 2003) study of the microbial quality of bottled water sold in Jordan. MSc. Thesis. University of Jordan.