Life Cycles of Neochetina bruchi Warner and Neochetina eichhorniae Hustache as Potential Biological Control Agents in the Semi Arid Zone of Nigeria
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, June 2015, Pages: 219-222
Received: May 15, 2015;
Accepted: May 22, 2015;
Published: Jun. 3, 2015
Views 4565 Downloads 127
Hamsatu L. Hamadina, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
C. E. Anaso, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
A. Umar, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria
Biological control is the use of living organism to suppress or control another living organisms, and it is cost-effective and environment-friendly. Water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes infestations in Nigeria stifles economic uses of surface waters, and arthropods have been used as biological control agents to reduce water hyacinth infestations, with smooth water hyacinth weevils (Neochetina eichhorniae) and N. bruchi being the most utilized. However, these weevils are not easily available due to lack of insectaries in most ecological zones of Nigeria, which underscores the need for this study. The first step is to understand the life cycles of the weevils under the target ecological zones, so that they can be reared when the need arises. This study was conducted, with the aim of quantifying the lifecycles of Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae under the semi-arid Maiduguri conditions in Nigeria. The life cycles of the Neochetina species reared in the semi arid conditions show peculiar characteristics. No significant difference was observed between N. bruchi and N. eichhorniae in terms of egg duration. However, the larval stage of N. eichhorniae lasted for about 2 months, but only one in the case of month for N. bruchi. This study highlights the potentials of the two weevils (N. bruchi and N. eichhorniae) as potential biological control agents in the semi arid climate of Nigeria. The lifecycle of the weevils show that both weevils can act as biological control agents, but N. eichhorniae has greater potentials, given its longer-lasting larval stage.
Hamsatu L. Hamadina,
C. E. Anaso,
Life Cycles of Neochetina bruchi Warner and Neochetina eichhorniae Hustache as Potential Biological Control Agents in the Semi Arid Zone of Nigeria, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 219-222.
Reinhardt C.F. 2000. Weed Manage Practices in Natural Ecosystem: a critical over view. Koedoe 43 (1): 67-74 Pretoria. In Catalogue of Biological Control Interventions on Invasive Alien Plants: Kruger National Park 2001. No4/01.
Ghosheh H.Z. 2005. Constrains in Implementing Biological Control: A Review, Weed Biology and Management, 5: 83-92 doi: 10, 1111/j. 1445-6664.2005.001 63x.
Pemberton, R.W. and Turner, C.E. 1990. Biological control of Senecio jacobaea in northern California, an enduring success. Entomophaga 35: 71-77.
Adebayo R.A. and U.O. Uyi, 2010. Biological Control of Invasive Weeds Species: Nigerian experience. Int. J. Agric. Res., 5: 1100-1106.
Denslow J.S. and Antonio 2005. After biocontrol: Assessing indirect effects of insect releases. Biological Control 35: 307-318.
Julien M.H. and M.W. Griffiths, 1998. Biological Control of weeds: World catalogue of agents and their target weed. Fourth Edition. Wallingfort, UK: CAB International.
Dubois, A. 2006. Species introductions and reintroductions, faunistic and genetic pollution: some provocative thoughts. Alytes, 24:147–164
Harley K.L.S. 1990. The Role of Biological Control in the Management of Water Hyacinth. Biocontrol News and Information, 11, 11-22.
Martin B.W. and FoxCroft L. C., 2001. Catalogue Biological Control Interventions of Invasive Alien Plants: Kruger National Park
Jimenez 2003. Progress on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) management In R. Labrada (Ed.) Agriculture and Consumer Protection Weed management for developing countries (Addendum 1). Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome, Italy
Hill M.P., Cilliers C.J. and Neser S. 1999.Life History and Laboratory Host Range of Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) (Heteroptera: Miridae), a New Natural Enemy Released on Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laub.) (Pontederiaceae) in South Africa. Biological Control 14: 127-133.
Ciliers C.J, Hill, M.P., Ogwang, J.A. and Ajuonu, A. 2003. Aquatic weeds in Africa and their control. In: Neuenschwander, P., Borgemeister, C. and Langewald, J.,[eds.]. Biological Control in IPM systems in Africa. CAB International, Pp. 161- 178.
Kolo, B., Dibal, J.M. and Ndakawa, I.I. 2009. Elemental Analysis of Tap and Borehole Waters in Maiduguri, Semi Arid Region, Nigeria. European J. Appl. Sci. 1(2): 26-29.
Ogwang, J.A. and Molo, R. 1997. Biological control of water hyacinth in Uganda. 6th East African Biennial Weed Science Conference Proceedings, 247–253.
Bashir M.O. El-Abjar Z.E., and Irving N.S.2004. Observations on the effect of the weevils Neochetina eichhorniae Warner and Neochetina bruchi Hustache on the growth of water hyacinth. Hydrobiol 110: 95-98.
DeLoach, C. J., and H. A. Cordo. 1976. Life cycle and biology of Neochetina bruchi a weevil attacking water hyacinth in Argentina, with notes on N. eichhorniae. Ann. Entom. Soc. Am. 69(4): 643-652.
DeLoach, C.J. and H.A. Cordo 1983. Control of water hyacinth by Neochetina bruchi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Bargoini) in Argentina. Environmental Entomology 12:19-23.