Ecological and Climatic Attribute Analysis for Egyptian Hypericum sinaicum
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 6, December 2014, Pages: 369-381
Received: Dec. 10, 2014; Accepted: Dec. 17, 2014; Published: Dec. 23, 2014
Views 2886      Downloads 166
Karim Abdelhai Omar, Nature Conservation Sector (NCS), Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), St. Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt
Article Tools
Follow on us
Conservation of globally endangered plant resources is a critical ecological, cultural and economic issue. The undertaking of ecological study focusing on the distribution, abundance and population structures of target species is fundamental to the assessment of the conservation status of wild populations. A study was carried out on the wild herb Hypericum sinaicum (Family: Hypericaceae) in Saint Katherine Protectorate (SKP), South Sinai, Egypt, where 22 sites presenting different habitats in SKP were surveyed for: (1) investigate the floristic composition, vegetation types and H. sinaicum distribution in the area, (2) define the ecological status of H. sinaicum and characterize this range by its size, shape, boundaries and internal structure, (3) clearly identify conservation priorities and suggest appropriate strategies for H. sinaicum conservation, (4) detect the effect of environmental factors on the distribution of H. sinaicum in order to use it as first step for conservation by rehabilitation or restoration, (5) determine the effect of spatial variation on plant community and H. sinaicum productivity, and (6) to determine the ecological and climatic requirements for this species and detect their effect on the species distribution. A total of 113 species were recorded in total within the 237 sites. 37 families were recorded within the study area; Asteraceae (15%) and Lamiaceae (11.5%) presented the dominant families in this area, while the Hypercaceae family which represented the target species (H. sinaicum) was recorded only once. H. sinaicum was recorded as dominant species in only 12 sites from 237 with 5%. Morphological attributes for Hypericum showed great variation due to the variation in the edaphic features of different locations. Finally it’s was observed that vegetation constitutes an organized whole, it operates at a higher level of integration than the separate species and may possess emergent properties not necessarily found in individual themselves. Most of the H. sinaicum populations were small and the plants occurred sporadically in space, as little groups conjugated with wet soil. At the micro-site level, H. sinaicum plants occupied most of high altitude habitats in SKP such as cliffs, Wadi bed, terrace, gorge, slope and cave habitats. H. sinaicum prefers the wet and shady places like gorges, slopes and cliffs with continuous water supply. There is an urgent need to integrate the knowledge derived from ecological, demographic and climatic approaches to species conservation in order to be able to formulate management strategies that take into account all different considerations.
Conservation, Medicinal Plants, Near Endemics, Saint Katherine Protectorate, Phytosociological Analysis
To cite this article
Karim Abdelhai Omar, Ecological and Climatic Attribute Analysis for Egyptian Hypericum sinaicum, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2014, pp. 369-381. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20140206.17
B. Huntley, "Species distribution and environmental change". In: Maltby, E., Hodgate, M., Acreman, M., Weir, A. (Eds.), Ecosystem Management. Questions for Science and Society. Royal Holloway Institute for Environmental Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, 115–129. 1999.
K. Brandon, "Policy and practical considerations in land-use strategies for biodiversity conservation". In: Kramer, R., van Schaik, C., Johnson, J. (Eds.), Last Stand. Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity. Oxford University Press, New York, 90–114. 1997.
R. Kramer, C. van Schalk, and J. Johnson, (Eds.), "Last Stand. Protected Areas and the Defense of Tropical Biodiversity". Oxford University Press, New York, 242 pp. 1997.
M.E. Soule´, and M.A. Sanjayan, "Conservation targets: do they help?" Science, 279: 2060–2061. 1998.
Anonymous, "A handbook for botanic gardens on the reintroduction of plants to the wild". Botanic Gardens Conservation International, 31 pp. 1995.
N. Maxted, M.W. van Slageren, and J.R. Rihan, "Ecogeographic surveys". In: Guarino L, Ramanatha Rao V, Reid R (eds) Collecting Plant Genetic Diversity. 255-285. 1995.
A.S. Ouédraogo, "Conservation and use of forest genetic resources". In: Proceedings of the XI World Forestry Congress, 13–22 October 1997, Antalya, Turkey. FAO, Rome, Italy. pp. 173–188. 1997.
V.H Heywood, and M.E. Dulloo, "In Situ Conservation of Wild Plant Species: A Critical Global Review of Good Practices". Bioversity International, 174 pp, 2005.
USDA. "The American Wild Relatives of Crops: In situ conservation guidelines. In Situ Subcommittee, Plant Germplasm Operations Committee". USDA, Beltsville, MD, USA. 1999.
L. Boulos, "Flora of Egypt". Al hadara publishing, Cairo, Egypt, Vol. 1: 419 pp. 1999.
A. Fayed, and K. Shaltout, "Conservation and sustainable use of Medicinal plants in arid and semi-arid eco-systems project, Egypt (GEF, UNDP) (project no: 12347/12348), Flora of Saint Catherine protectorate, final report. And Floristic Survey of the Mountainous Southern Sinai": Saint Katherine Protectorate, final report. 2004.
P. Brang, W. Schönenberger, E. Ott, and R.H. Gardner, "Forests as protection from natural hazards". In: Evans, J. (Ed.), The Forests Handbook. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 53-81. 2001.
M.A. Oliver, and R. Webster, "Semi-variograms for modeling the spatial pattern of landform and soil properties". Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 11: 491–504. 1986.
R.L. Weiser, G. Asrar, G.P. Miller, and E.T. Kanemasu, "Assessing grassland biophysical characteristics from spectral measurements". Remote Sensing of Environment, 20: 141–152. 1986.
N.L. Stephenson, "Climatic control of vegetation distribution: The role of the water balance". American Naturalist, 135: 649–670. 1960.
C.L. Turner, T.R. Seastedt, M.I. Dyer, T.G.F. Kittel, and D.S. Schimel, " Effects of management and topography on the radiometric response of a tall grass prairie". Journal of Geophysical Research, 97(D17): 18855–18866. 1992.
G.M. Henebry, "Detecting change in grasslands using measures of spatial dependence with Landsat TM data". Remote Sensing of Environment, 46: 223–234. 1993.
B.A. Endress, and J.D. Chinea, " Landscape patterns of tropical forest recovery in the Republic of Palau". Biotropica, 33: 555–565. 2001.
Y. Bai, K. Broersma, D. Thompson, and T.J. Ross, "Landscape-level dynamics of grassland–forest transitions in British Columbia". Journal of Range Management, 55: 66-75. 2004.
P. Walker, and K. Cocks, "Habitat: a procedure for modelling a disjoint environmental envelope for a plant or animal species". Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 1: 108–118. 1991.
J. Franklin, " Predictive vegetation figureping: geographic modelling of biospatial patterns in relation to environmental gradients". Progress in Physical Geography 19: 474–499. 1995.
A. Guisan, and N.E. Zimmerman, "Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology". Ecol. Model. 135: 147–186. 2000.
G. Shao, and P.N. Halpin, "Climatic controls of eastern North American coastal tree and shrub distributions". Journal of Biogeography, 22: 1083–1089. 1995.
[24] S.N. Goward, and S.D. Prince, "Transient effects of climate on vegetation dynamics: Satellite observations". Journal of Biogeography, 22: 549– 563. 1995.
L. Boulos, "Flora of Egypt". Al hadara publishing, Cairo, Egypt, Vol. 3: 373 pp. 2002.
IUCN, "IUCN Redlist Categories". Prepared by the Special Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 1994.
T. Rezanka, and K. Sigler, "Sinaicinone, a complex adamantanyl derivative from Hypericum sinaicum". Phytochemistry, 68: 1272–1276. 2007.
C.S. Piper, "Soil and plant analysis", Univ. of Adelaide press. Australia, 85-91. 1950.
M.L. Jackson, "Soil chemical analysis", Prentice-Hall of India private, New Delhi, India. 498 pp. 1967.
M.G. Barbour, J.H. Burk, and W.D. Pitts, "Terrestrial plant ecology". 2nd edition. Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, California. 604 pp. 1987.
J. Braun-Blanquet, J. "Plant Sociology". Translated by G.D. Fuller and H.S. Connard, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. New York, London. 439 pp. 1964.
D. Mueller-Dombois, and H. Ellenberg. "Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology". John Wiley & Sons, New York, 547 pp. 1974.
K.S. Shukla, and P.S. Chandel, "Plant Ecology and Soil Science". S. Chand and Co. New Delhi, India. 1989.
IUCN, Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 11. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee. Downloadable from 2014.
A. Nelson, G. LeClerc, and M. Grum, "The development of an integrated Tcl/Tk and C interface to determine, visualize and interrogate infraspecifc biodiversity". Internal CIAT document. GIS Laboratory, CIAT, Cali, Colombia, 104-140. 1997.
S. Zalat, F. Semida, F. Gilbert, S. El Banna, E. Sayed, H. El Alqamy, and J. Behnke, "Spatial Variation in the biodiversity of Bedouin gardens in the Saint Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt". Egyptian Journal of Biology, 3: 147-155. 2001.
K. Omar, O. Khafagi, and M.A. Elkholy, "Eco-geographical analysis on mountain plants: A case study of Nepeta septemcrenata in South Sinai, Egypt". Lambert Academic Publishing, 236 pp. 2012.
A.M. Abd Elazeem, "Operation Wallacea in Egypt I- Apreliminary study on diversity of fungi in the world hirtage site of Saint Katherin, Egypt". Assiut Univ. J. of Botany, 38 (1): 29-54. 2009.
R. Guenther, F. Gilbert, S. Zalat, Selimk and the volunteers of operation wallacea in Egypt, "Vegetation and grazing in the St Katherine Protectorate, South Sinai, Egypt". Egyptian Journal of Biology, 7: 55-65. 2005.
R.H. Abd El-Wahab, "Landforms, Vegetation, and Soil Quality in South Sinai, Egypt". The Egyptian Society for Environmental Sciences. 1(2): 127-138. 2006.
E. Ezcurra, M. Equihua, and J. Lopez-Portillo, "The desert vegetation of El Pinacate Sonora Mexico". Vegetatio 71: 49–60. 1987.
S.K. Sharma, and V. Shankar, "Classification and ordination of vegetation of the Kailana catchments in the Indian Thar Desert ii. Woody Vegetation. Tropical Ecology 32: 269–286. 1991.
E. Maarel, "Vegetation ecology". Blackwell Publishing company, 107-335. 2005.
D.R. Taylor, L.W. Aarssen, & C. Loehle, "On the relationship between r/K selection and environmental carrying capacity: a new habitat templet for plant life history strategies". - Oikos 58:239-250. 1990.
M. Zobel, "Plant species coexistence - the role of historical, evolutionary and ecological factors". –Oikos, 65:314-320. 1992.
L.W. Aarssen, and B.S. Schamp, “Predicting distributions of species richness size in regional floras. Applying the species pool hypothesis to the habitat templet model". - Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 5:3-12. 2002.
J.L. Harper, “Population Biology of Plants". Academic Press, London, 892 pp. 1977.
A.E. Magurran, “Ecological diversity and its measurement". Princeton University Press, Great Britain. 179 pp. 1988.
M. El-Nennah, M.A. El-Kadi, R.N. Kamh, and S. El-Sherif, “Forms of copper and zinc in soils of Sinai". Desert Institute Bulletin, A.R.E. 31(B):129- 139. 1981.
A.A. Ramadan, “Ecological studies in Wadi Feiran, Its Tributaries and The Adjacent Mountains". Ph.D. Thesis, Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. 1988.
R.N. Kamh, M.A. El-Kadi, A.H. El-Kadi, and M.S.A. Dahdoh, "Evaluation of Mn forms in selected soils of Sinai". Desert Institute Bulletin, A.R.E. 39(1):183-197. 1989.
A.M. Balba, “Management of problem soils in arid ecosystems". Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Inc., New York. 250 pp. 1995.
A.M. Moustafa, and A.M. Zayed, “Effect of environmental factors on the flora of alluvial fans in southern Sinai". Journal of Arid Environments 32: 431-443. 1996.
A.A. Moustafa, and J.M. Klopatek. "Vegetation and landforms of the Saint Katherine area, Southern Sinai, Egypt". Journal of Arid Environments 30: 385-395. 1995.
M.A. Helmy, A.A. Moustafa, R.H. Abd El-wahab, and K.H. Batanony, “Distribution behavior of seven common shrubs and trees growing in South Sinai, Egypt". Egyptian Journal of Botany 36(1): 53- 70. 1996.
A. Khedr, "Assessment, classification, and analysis of microhabitats supporting globally significant Plant species": Abdel-Hamid A. Khedr, May-September 2007, 1-37. 2007.
K.H. Batanouny, “Human impact on desert vegetation. In: Man’s Impact on Vegetation", W. Holzner, M.J.A. Werger, and I. Ikusima, (eds.), Dr. W. Junk Publishers, London, 380 pp. 1983.
Z.A.R. El-Karemy, and K.M. Zayed. "The vegetation and habitat types of Baha plateau, Saudi Arabia". Journal of Islamic Academy of Sciences 5 (4): 256-264. 1992.
M.M. Abd El-Ghani, “Weed plant communities of orchards in Siwa Oasis–Egypt". Feddes Repertorium, 105 (5-6): 387-398. 1994.
M.M. Abd El-Ghani, and W. Amer, "Soil-vegetation relationships in a coastal desert plain of southern Sinai, Egypt". Journal of Arid Environments, 55: 607-628. 2003.
M.A. Ayyad, and M.Y. Ammar, "Vegetation and environment of the Western Mediterranean Coastal Land of Egypt". II. The habitat of inland ridges. J. Ecol., 62: 439-456. 1974.
A. Danin, “Desert Vegetation of Israel and Sinai". Cana Pub. House, Jerusalem, Israel, 148 pp. 1983.
M. Kassas, and K.H. Batanouny, “Plant Ecology in Sahara Desert". In: Cloudsely–Thompson, J. (ed.), Sahara–Desert, Oxford, Pergmon Press, 77–90. 1994.
A.A. Moustafa, “Environmental gradients and species distribution on Sinai Mountains". Ph.D. Thesis, Bot. Dept., Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia, Egypt, 115 pp. 1990.
M. Kassas, “Certain aspects of landform effects on plant water resources". Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie d'Egypte, 29: 5-52. 1960.
R. El-Ghareeb, and M.S. Shabana, “Distribution behavior of common plant species along physiographic gradients in two wadi beds of Southern Sinai". Journal of Arid Environments 19: 169-179. 1990.
M.A. Ayyad, A.M. Fakhry, and A.A. Moustafa, “Plant biodiversity in Saint Catherine area of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt". Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 265-281. 2001.
G.P. Robertson, D.C. Coleman, C.S. Bledsoe, P. and Sollins, “Standard Soil Methods for Long-term Ecological Research". Oxford University Press, New York, 258-271. 1999.
J. Benton-Jones, “Laboratory Guide for Conducting Soil Tests and Plant Analysis". CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 256 pp. 2001.
M. Pansu, J. Gautheyrou, and J.Y. Loyer, "Soil Analysis – Sampling, Instrumentation and Quality Control". Balkema, Lisse, The Netherlands 489 pp. 2001.
K.H. Tan, “Soil Sampling, Preparation, and Analysis". CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 2005.
P.H.A. Sneath, and R.R. Sokal, " Numerical taxonomy — the principles and practice of numerical classification". (W. H. Freeman: San Francisco.) 573 pp. 1973.
F.P. Day, and C.D. Monk, "Vegetation patterns on a Southern Appalachian watershed". Ecology, 55: 1064-1074. 1974.
R.B. Allen, and R.K. Peet, "Gradient analysis of forests of the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado". Canadian Journal of Botany, 68: 193-201. 1990.
R.T. Busing, P.S. White, and M.D. MacKende, "Gradient analysis of old spruce-fir forest of the Great Smokey Mountains circa 1935". Canadian Journal of Botany, 71: 951-958. 1992.
P. Walker, and K. Cocks, " Habitat: a procedure for modelling a disjoint environmental envelope for a plant or animal species". Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 1: 108–118. 1991.
B.H. Braswell, D.S. Schimel, E. Linder, and B. Moore III, "The response of global terrestrial ecosystems to interannual temperature variability". Science, 278: 870–872. 1997.
H. Tian, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, A.D. McGuire, J. Helfrich, B. Moore III, & C.J. Vorosmarty, "Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems". Global Ecology and Biogeography, 9, 315– 335. 2000.
L. Zhou, C.J. Tucker, R.K. Kaufmann, D. Slayback, N.V. Shabanov, and R.B. Myneni, "Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106 (17): 269–283. 2001.
J. Kindermann, G. Wurth, G.H. Kohlmaier, and F.W. Badeck, "Interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems". Global Biogeochemical Cycle, 10: 737–755. 1996.
H. Tian, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, A.D. McGuire, J. Helfrich, "The sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to historical climate variability and atmospheric CO2 in the United States". Tellus, 51B: 414– 452. 1999.
C.S. Potter, S.A. Klooster, and V. Brooks, "International variability in terrestrial net primary production: Exploration of trends and controls on regional to global scales". Ecosystems, 2: 36–48. 1999.
P. Alpert, S.O. Krichak, H. Shafir, D. Haim and I. Osetinsky, "Climatic trends to extremes employing regional modeling and statistical interpretation over the E. Mediterranean". Global Planet Change 63:163–170, 2008.
F. Giorgi and P. Lionello, "Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region". Global Planet Change 63:90–104, 2008.
A.S. Issar, "The impact of global warming on the water resources of the Middle East: past, present and future". In: Zereini F, Ho¨tzl H (eds) Climate changes and water resources in the Middle East and North Africa. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 145–164, 2008.
C.M. McCain and R.K. Colwell, "Assessing the threat to montane biodiversity from discordant shifts in temperature and precipitation in a changing climate". Ecol Lett 14:1236–1245, 2011.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186