Cardiovascular Calcification in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Contributors Interplay
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, October 2014, Pages: 251-259
Received: Aug. 22, 2014; Accepted: Sep. 8, 2014; Published: Sep. 30, 2014
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Authors
Ashraf Abd El-Khalik Barakat, Intensive Care Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Manar Abd El-Rouf Raafat Ameen, Nephrology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Amna Ahmed Metwaly, Intensive Care Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Fatma Mohammed Nasr, Intensive Care Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Nevine Sherif Ali Khalil, Nephrology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
Iris Nessim, Clinical Chemistry Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt
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Abstract
Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are common among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. However the high prevalence of atherosclerosis and arterial calcification in CKD is far beyond the explanation by common cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of cardiovascular calcification and its relation to demographic data, hemodialysis data and laboratory biomarkers and to evaluate the cardiovascular risk of atherosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. Fourty CKD patients on regular hemodialysis and twenty healthy volunteers were subjected to echocardiography, carotid ultrasound and laboratory studies including serum parathrmone (PTH), 25(OH) vitamin D, feutin and osteoprotegerin levels (OPG). The echocardiographic data showed a statistically significant increase in interventricular septum thickness (IVST), posterior wall thickness (PWT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in patients group compared to the controls. Thirty patients (75%) had valvular calcification. There was significant increase in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in patients group. Serum levels of Ph, PTH and Osteoprotegerin were significantly increased, however, serum levels of Ca, Vitamin D and Feutin were significantly decreased in patients group. Serum level of Ph, and Osteoprotogerin were significantly increased while Vitamin D and feutin were significantly decreased in patients with valvular calcification compared to patients without valvular calcifications. The level of Vitamin D and Fetuin were negatively correlated with creatinine, PTH and osteoprotogerin. While, the level of osteoprotogerin and PTH were positively correlated with creatinine and with each other, they were negatively correlated with HDL-c and eGFR. CIMT was positively correlated with LVMI, PWT, urea, creatinine, CRP, Ca and was negatively correlated with EF%, eGFR, HDL-c, vitamin D and Feutin. We concluded that hemodialysis patients with valvular calcifications were older in age, with a longer hemodialysis duration and showed higher Ph level, Ca x P product and OPG level and lower 25(OH)-vitamin D and fetuin A level. Also, they showed lower EF % and were on lower doses of alphacalcidol and higher doses of calcium compared to patients without valvular calcifications. So, our study points to the importance of administration of active vitamin D derivatives to decrease the risk of valvular calcification and atherosclerosis. Serum fetuin A and osteoprotegerin can be used as a simple, easily performed biomarkers mirroring valvular calcification in hemodialysis patients. Further studies should be done to assess trials for the addition of fetuin A in the treatment of CKD patients to prevent the occurrence of calcification.
Keywords
Chronic Kidney Disease, 25(OH)-Vitamin D, Parathormone, Fetuin A, Osteoprotegerin, Vascular and Valvular Calcification, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
To cite this article
Ashraf Abd El-Khalik Barakat, Manar Abd El-Rouf Raafat Ameen, Amna Ahmed Metwaly, Fatma Mohammed Nasr, Nevine Sherif Ali Khalil, Iris Nessim, Cardiovascular Calcification in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Contributors Interplay, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 251-259. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20140205.11
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