Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Parvum among Children in Iraq
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 6, December 2013, Pages: 256-260
Received: Apr. 3, 2013; Published: Dec. 10, 2013
Views 3097      Downloads 183
Authors
Abdulsadah A. Rahi, Dept. of Biology, College of Science, Wasit University, Iraq
Magda A. Ali, Dept. of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Wasit University, Iraq, TUMS-IC
Alaa H. Al-Charrakh, Dept. of Microbiology/ College of Medicine /Babylon University, Hilla, Iraq
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by an apicomplexan protozoa of. Cryptosporidium parvum is the specific infective agent in human . The present study aimed to search for the presence of C. parvumand to determine the prevalence of this parasite among children in Kut city, Iraq. Six hundred stool samples were collected from children less than twelve years old from October 2011 to May 2012. Stool samples were inspected by modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain and ELISA. Results indicated that 203 cases gave positive results (33.83 %) and 397 cases gave negative results (66.17%) with Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast stain . The higher infection, 115 (19.17%) appeared in age (<1) year while the lower infection 37 (6.17%) appeared in age (1-6) years. There was association between anemia 66.01% (134/203), Packed Cell Volume (PCV) 66.01% (134/203), White Blood Cells Count (WBC's) 66.01% (134/203) that showed increase in number, and infection with cryptosporidiosis, respectively. The high percentage of positive cases (100%) was recorded in microscopic examination compared to 72.5% (129/178) of positive cases detected by ELISA assay. The present study is the first record of cryptosporidiosis among children in Wasit Province, Iraq. It demonstrated clearly a high prevalence rate of C. parvum among children of less than 12 years old in Iraq. ELISA technique will be of great value in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of C. parvum in human fecal materials.
Keywords
Cryptosporidium Parvum, Prevalence, Children, Stool, ELISA
To cite this article
Abdulsadah A. Rahi, Magda A. Ali, Alaa H. Al-Charrakh, Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Parvum among Children in Iraq, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 6, 2013, pp. 256-260. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20130106.13
References
[1]
Ikechukwu D, Benjamin N., and Uchechukwu C.. Cryptosporidiosis in Imo State, Nigeria. J Rural Trop Pub Health 2011; 10: 106 ‐110.
[2]
Sunnotel O, Verdoold R, Dunlop PSM, Snelling WJ, Lowery CJ, Dooley JSE, Moore JE, and Byrne JA.. Photocatalytic inactivation of C. parvum on nanostructured titanium dioxide films. J Water Health2010; 8(1): 83-91.
[3]
Mosallanejad B, Hamidinejat H, Avizeh R, Ghorbanpoor NM, and Razi MH.. Antigenic detection of Cryptosporidium parvumin urban and rural dogs in Ahvaz district, southwestern Iran. Iran J Vet Res 2010; 11(3): 273-278.
[4]
Pantenburg B, Gonzalez AC, Dann SM, Connelly RL, Lewis DE, Ward HD, and White AC.. Human CD8 + T cells clear C. parvumfrom infected intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010; 82 (4): 600 – 607.
[5]
Burton AJ, Nydam DV, Jones G, Zambriski JA, Linden TC, Cox G, Davis R, Brown A, and Bowman DD.. Antibody responses following administration of a C. parvum rCP15/60 vaccine to pregnant cattle. Vet Parasitol 2011; 175:178-181.
[6]
Casimiro AM, Carvalho TTR, andKanamura HY..Serological evidence of Cryptosporidium infections in a group of pregnant women attended by the prenatal routine care at a public hospital in Sao Paulo (SP), Brazil. Rev Panam Infect 2009; 11(2): 38-43.
[7]
Adam AA, Mohamed EO, and Abdullah MA.. Cryptosporidiosis among patients with diarrhea attending Nyala hospital. JMS 2007; 2 (1): 41-44.
[8]
Sevinc F, Uslu U, and Derinbay Ö.. The Prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum in lambs around Konya. Turk. J Vet AnimSci 2005; 29:1191-1194.
[9]
Kamal KA, El-Dib NA, and Hassanin FS.. Evaluation of immunoflourescent anti body (IFA) kit for the detection of C. parvumoocysts and Giardia latubliacysts in stool specimens. PUJ 2008; 1(2): 145-147.
[10]
Musa HA, Salim GA, Ismael AA, Elfadil A, andKafi SK..Diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvumin immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in Khartoum State. JMS 2011; 6 (1): 39-42.
[11]
Current WL, and Garcia LS. Cryptosporidiosis. ClinMicrobiol Rev1991; 4: 325-358.
[12]
Garcia LS, and Current WL.. Cryptosporidiosis: clinical features and diagnosis. Crit. Rev Clin Lab Sci 1989; 27: 439-60.
[13]
Al-Mashadani, K. A. K. & Abbodi E. H. (2009). Statistical hypothesis tests. Baghdad University.
[14]
Johnson SP, Ballard MM, Beach J, Causer L, and Wilkins PP.. Evaluation of three commercial assays for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium organisms in fecal specimens. J ClinMicrobiol 2003; 41: 623-626.
[15]
Srijan A, Wongstitwilairoong B, Pitarangsi C, Serichantalergs O, Fukuda CD, Bodhidatta L, and Mason CJ. Mason, Re-evaluation of commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2005; 36 (4): 26-29.
[16]
Tahira F, Khan HM, Shukla I, Shujatullah F, Malik MA, and Shahid M. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in children with diarrhoea in north Indian tertiary care hospital. J Commun Med Health Edu 2012; 2 (3):136. doi:10.4172/jcmhe.1000136.
[17]
Mahdi NK, AL-Sadoon IA, and Mohamed A. First report of cryptosporidiosis among Iraqi children. Eastern Med Health J 1996; 2(1): 115-120.
[18]
Philip DAT, Rawlins SC, Baboolal S, Gosein R, Goddard C, Legall G, and Chinchamee A. Relative importance of the various environmental sources of Cryptosporidiumoocysts in three watersheds. J Water Health 2008; 6 (1): 23-34.
[19]
Al-Braiken FA, Amin A, Beeching NJ, Hommel M, and Hart CA. Detection of Cryptosporidium amongst diarrhoeic and asymptomatic children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol2003; 97(5): 505-510.
[20]
Mahgoub ES, Almahbashi A, and Abdulatif B. Cryptosporidiosis in children in a north Jordanian paediatric hospital. East Mediterr Health J 2004; 10 (4-5):494-501.
[21]
Helmy MM, Rashed LA, and El-Garhy MF. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidiumparvum isolates obtained from humans. J Egypt SocParasitol 2004; 34 (2): 447-58.
[22]
Nagamani K, Pavuluri PRR, Gyaneshwari M, Prasanthi K, Rao MIS, Saxena NK. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium: An emerging parasite. Ind J Med Microbiol2007; 25 (2): 133-136.
[23]
Kliegman RM, Stanton BMD, Geme JS, Schor N, and Behrman RE. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19thEdn., Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. 2011.
[24]
Al-Hadithi IA and Ali MA. Incidence of cryptosporidiosis among children at Ramadi city. J WasitSci Med 2009; 2 (1): 96-111.
[25]
Chai J, Kim NY, Guk SM, Park YK, Seo M, Han ET, and Lee SH. High prevalence and seasonality of cryptosporidiosis in a small village occupied predominantly by aged people in the republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2001; 65(5): 518–522.
[26]
Ali MA. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium among children at Ramadi city. M.Sc thesis. College of medicine, Al-Anbar University, 2008; pp. 46-48.
[27]
Tigabu E, Petros B, and Endeshaw T. Prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis among children in relation to water sources in selected village of pawi special district in Benishangul-Gumuz region, northwestern Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Dev 2010; 24(3): 205-213.
[28]
Hossein S, Omid Y, Amene Y, Mohammad-Reza M, and Mohsen S. Infection rate of Cryptosporidium parvum among diarrheic children in Isfahan. J Iran Ped 2010; 20 (3): 343-347.
[29]
Wardlaw GM. Contemporary nutrition: Issues and Insights. 5thEdn., McGraw Hill, New York, 2003; pp. 317-319.
[30]
Singh I. Text book of human histology.4th Edn.,Jaypee medical publishers Ltd., New Delhi, 2002; pp. 70-72.
[31]
Al-Moussawi AM. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among rural population in Babylon Province. M.Sc thesis. College of Dentistry, University of Babylon, 2002.
[32]
Coupe S, Sarfati C, Hamane S, and Derouin F. Detection of Cryptosporidium and identification to the species level by nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism. J ClinMicrobiol 2005; 43 (3):1017-1023.
[33]
Marques FR, Cardoso LV, Cavasini CE, Almeida MC, Bassi NA, AlmeidaMTG, Rossit ARB, and Machado RLD. Performance of an immunoenzymatic assay for Cryptosporidium diagnosis of fecal samples. Braz J Inf Dis 2005; 9 (1): 3-5.
[34]
Gullu E, and Ismail SK. Investigation on Cryptosporidium spp. antigen by ELISA method in stool specimens obtained from patients with diarrhea. J Parasitol Res 2011; 108 (2): 395-397.
[35]
Al-Hindi AI, Elmanama AA, and Elnabris KJA. Cryptosporidiosis among children attending Al- Nasser pediatric hospital, Gaza, Palestine. Turk J Med Sci 2007; 37 (6): 367-372.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186