Prevalence of Oral Candida Albicans Infection in HIV Sero-Positive Patients in Abakaliki
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 72-76
Received: Apr. 3, 2013; Published: Jun. 10, 2013
Views 2994      Downloads 265
Okonkwo E. C., Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sicences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Alo M. N., Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Nworie O., Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federal University Ndufu Alike-Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Orji J. O., Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sicences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Agah M. V., Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sicences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Oral thrush is commonly associated with HIV infection. The causative agent is a yeast strain that is originally a commensal of the oral cavity. Most species of the genus Candida that causes oral candidasis in HIV patients if not properly identified and treated with the drug of choice could result in resistant to the drugs and make treatment very difficult. This study was carried out to establsish the species spectrum of the common yeast(Candida albicans) associated with oral candidiasis in HIV patients on antiretroviral treatment in Abakaliki. A total of 240 samples were collected from HIV sero-positive males(64) and females(176) at the two hospitals. 40 control samples from HIV sero-negative persons were also collected. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and Candida species were isolated and characterized using germ tube test and sugar fermentation tests. Out of the 240 subjects(HIV sero-positive patients) examined for oral candidiasis, the carriage rate of oral candidiasis were 12.5%(30/240). Candida albicans accounted for 80.00% in HIV sero-postive patients, followed by Candida pseudotropicalis(10.0%). More women, 21(8.75) had oral candidiasis than men 9(3.75%). HIV patients whether or not on drugs were predisposed to oral candidiasis. C. albicans(76.19%) is the commonest species associated with HIV infected patients on ART(Active Retroviral Therapy) followed by Candida pseudotropicalis(14.29%), Candida tropicalis(4.76%) and Candida parapsilosis(4.76%). Among the patients not on ART Candida albicans(88.89%) was most prevalent, followed by Candida guilliermondii(11.11%). C. albicans still remains the leading cause of oropharyngeal candidiasis in HIV infected persons within the study population. Constant identification of isolates of yeasts infecting HIV infected persons and the immune compromised will further enhance the appropriate treatment and minimize the spread emergence of antifungal resistance.
Prevalence, Oral Candidiasis, HIV Sero-Positve Patients, ART, Abakaliki
To cite this article
Okonkwo E. C., Alo M. N., Nworie O., Orji J. O., Agah M. V., Prevalence of Oral Candida Albicans Infection in HIV Sero-Positive Patients in Abakaliki, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, pp. 72-76. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20130102.18
William JD and Timothy B.G. 2006. Andrews' diseases of the skin: Clinical dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. P. 45. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
Crispian S. Oral and maxillofacial medicine: The basis of diagnosis and treatment(2nd ed. ed. ). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone 2008 PP. 191-199.
Fidel PL. Candida-host interactions in HIV disease: Relationships in oropharyngeal candidiasis. Adv Dent Res 2006, 19: 80–84.
Mousavi SAA, Salari S, Rezaie S, Nejad NS, Hadizadeh S, Kamyabi H & Aghasi H. Identification of Candida species isolated from oral colonization in Iranian HIV-positive patients, by PCR-RFLP method. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2012, 5(1): 336-340. DOI: 10.5812.
Wabe NT, Hussein J, Suleman S. & Abdella K. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolates from oral cavities of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Ethiopia. Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine 2011, 1(4): 265-271.
Khan AP, Malik A & Khan SH.. Profile of candidiasis in HIV infected patients Iranian Journal of Microbiology 2012, 4(4): 204-209.
Pappas PG, Rex J.H. & Lee J. A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin Infect Dis 2003, 37(5): 634-643.
Hamza OJM, Mate M, Kikwilu E, Moshi E, Mugust J, Mikke F, Verius M & Vander A. Oral manifestation in HIV infection in children and adults ecieving HAART in Dar Salaam, Tanzania. Bioned Central Oral Health 2008, 6:12.
Michelet C, Arvieux C, François C, Besnier JM, Rogez JP, Breux JP &and Souala F. Opportunistic infections occurring during highly active antiretroviral treatment. AIDS 1998 12: 1815-1822.
Moris D, Melhem M, Martins M & Mendes R. Oral Candida spp. colonization in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins 2008, 14(2): 224-257.
Katiraee F, Khosravi AR, Khalaj V, Hajiabdolbaghi M, Khaksar A & Rasoolinejad M. Oropharyngeal candidiasis and oral yeast colonization in Iranian Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive patients. J Med Mycol 2010, 20(1): 8-14.
Mirhendi S, Kordbacheh P, Pezeshki M & Khorramizadeh M. Simple and rapid identification of most medically important Candida species by a PCR-restriction enzyme method. Acta Medica Iranica 2003, 41: 2.
Espinel-Ingroff A, Brachiesi F, Hazen KC, Martinez-Suarez JV & Scalise G. Standardization of antifungal susceptibility testing and clinical relevance. Med Mycol 1998, 36: 68-78
Sanchez-Vargas LO, Ortiz-Lopez NG, Villar M, Moragues MD, Aguirre JM, Cashat-Cruz M, Lopez-Ribot JL, Gaitan-Cepeda LA & Quindos G. Oral Candida isolates colonizing or infecting human immunodeficiency virus-infected and healthy persons in Mexico. Clin Microbiol J 2005, 43: 4159-4162.
Ito CY, de Paiva MCA, Loberto JC, dos Santos SS & Jorge AO. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolates from patients with chronic periodontitis and from control patients. Braz Oral Res 2004, 18:80-84.
Pruthvi BC, Vikram S, Suman SK, Jayaprakash B. & Rau NR. Spectrum of Clinical Presentation and Opportunistic Infections in HIV: An Indian Scenario, 13th International Congress on Infectious Diseases 2006, P. e484
Shokohi T, Bandalizadeh Z, Hedayati MT & Mayahi S. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from oropharyngeal lesions of patients with cancer to some antifungal agents. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2011, 4(1): S19-S26.
Cassone A, De Bernardis F, Torosantucci A, Tacconelli E, Tumbarello M & Cauda R In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. J Infect Dis 1999, 180, 448-453.
Arribas JR, Hernandez-albujar S, Gonzales-garcia JJ, Peña JM, Gonzáles A, Cañedo T, Madero R, Vazquez JJ &Powderly WG. Impact of protease inhibitor therapy on HIV-related oropharyngeal candidiasis. AIDS 2000, 14: 979-85.
Lar PM, Pam KV, Tiri Y, Olukose S, Yusuf A, Dashen MM & Mawak JD. Prevalence and distribution of Candida Species in HIV infected persons on antiretroviral therapy in Jos. Journal of Medicine and Medical Science 2012, 3(4): 254-259
Enwuru CA, Ogunledun A, Ogbonna F, Enwuru NV, Aneidobe M & Adeiga A. Fluconazole resistant opportunistic oropharyngeal Candida and non- Candida yeast-like isolates from HIV infected patients attending ARV clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. J Afr Health Sci 2008, 18(3): 142-148.
Agwu E, Ihongbe JC, McManus BA, Moran GP, Coleman DC & Sullivan DJ. Distribution of yeast species associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected patients in Southwest Uganda. Med Mycol 2011, 12.
Teanpaisan R & Nittayananta W. Prevalence of Candida species in AIDS patients and HIV-free subjects in Thailand. J Oral Pathol Med 1998, 27: 4–7.
Pongsiriwet S, Iamaroon A, Sriburee P, Pattanaporn K & Krisanaprakornkit S. Oral colonization of Candida species in perinatally-HIV infected children in northern Thailand. J Oral Sci 2004, 46: 101–105.
Tsang CS & Samaranayake LP. Oral yeasts and coliforms in HIVinfected individuals in Hong Kong. Mycoses 2000, 43: 303–308.
Campisi G, Pizzo G, Milici ME, Mancuso S & Margiotta V. Candida carriage in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virusinfected subjects. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 2002, 93: 281–286.
Schmidt-Westhausen A, Schiller RA, Pohle HD & Reichart PA. Oral Candida and Enterobacteriaceae in HIV-1 infection: correlation with clinical candidiasis and antimycotic therapy. J Oral Pathol Med 1991, 20: 469–472.
Gugnani HC, Becker K, Fegeler W, Basu S, Chattopadhya D, Baveja U, Satyanarayana S, Kalghatgi T & Murlidhar A. Oropharyngeal carriage of Candida species in HIV-infected patients in India. Mycoses 2003, 46: 299–306.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186