Anti-Inflammatory Role of Omega-3 to Retinal Injury induced by Infrared Radiation
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 49-54
Received: Apr. 15, 2013; Published: Apr. 10, 2013
Views 3017      Downloads 98
Author
Mervat Ahmed Ali, Research institute of ophthalmology, Visual science department, Giza, Egypt
Article Tools
PDF
Follow on us
Abstract
Each ocular tissue is vulnerable to infrared (IR) since at every stage through the eye's transmission IR is absorbed. Thermal effect of IR to eyes is far more permanent although the absorption often causes cumulative damage over a long period. Nevertheless, those exposed to very significant level of IR at any one time would be aware of its heating effect and tend to protect themselves. The present work investigated the effect of IR on retina and the anti-inflammatory role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω -3 PUSFA). The rabbits were divided into four groups; one of them served as control, the other three groups was exposed to IR for 5, 10 and 20 minutes. Animals from these three groups were subdivided into two subgroups, one of them was sacrificed directly after IR exposure, while the other received omega-3 for 14 days before exposed to IR .The animals were subjected to examination by electroretinogram (ERG) as well as analysis of Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for retinal protein was carried out. The results indicated decrease of b-wave amplitude and increase in the latency, in the electrophoresis pattern pronounced changes were observed. These changes were more extensive in rabbits exposed to IR than those supplemented with omega-3. These finding suggest that omega-3 can protect the retina from infrared injury for up to 10 minutes of exposure.
Keywords
Infrared radiation, Omega-3, Electroretinogram, rabbits, Electrophoresis
To cite this article
Mervat Ahmed Ali, Anti-Inflammatory Role of Omega-3 to Retinal Injury induced by Infrared Radiation, American Journal of Life Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, pp. 49-54. doi: 10.11648/j.ajls.20130102.15
References
[1]
International Commission on Illumination (1987) International Lighting Vocabulary. CIE 17.4
[2]
Ham W.T., Mueller H.A., and Sliney, D.H. Retinal sensitivity to damage from short wavelength light. Nature 260, 1976; pp153–155.
[3]
Chen J.C, Lee L.R. "Solar retinopathy and associated optical coherence tomography findings." Clin Exp Optom. Nov;87(6):2004;pp390-3.
[4]
Pitts D.G., Cullen A.P. and Dayhaw-Barker P. (1980) "De-termination of ocular threshold levels for infrared radiation cataractogenesis" US Dept. Health and Human Sciences, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Pub-lications 80-121.
[5]
Sliney D.H and Freasier B.C Evaluation of Optical Radiation Hazards. Applied Optics 12, 1973; 1-2X
[6]
Lydahl E. Infrared radiation and Cataract Acta Ophthalmol Suppl 1984;166:1-63.
[7]
Kourkoumelis, N. and Tzaphlidou, M. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices. The Scientific World JOURNAL 11, 2011; pp 520–528.
[8]
Pitts D.G. and Cullen A.P. Determination of infrared radiation levels for acute ocular cataractogenesis. Albrecht Von Graefes Arch. Klin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 217,1981; 285–297.
[9]
Allen R.G. Polhamus G.D. Ocular thermal injury from intense light In: Wolbarasht, M.L., ed, Laser application in medicine and biology. New : Plenum Press ; 1989.
[10]
Voke J. Radiation effects on the eye, part 1: infrared radiation effects on ocular tissue. Optom. Today 9,1999;pp 22–28.
[11]
Ham W. et al "Sensitivity of the retina to radiation damage as a function of wavelength". Photochem. And Photobiol. 29: 1979;pp 735-743
[12]
Scott JA. The computtion of temperature rises in the human eye induced by infrared radiation. Phys Med Biol. 33: 1988;pp243–57.
[13]
Kojima M, Okuno T, Miyakoshi M, Sasaki K, Takahashi N. Environmental temperature and cataract progression in ex-perimental rat cataract models. Dev Ophthalmol. 35: 2002;pp125–34.
[14]
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Pro-tection Guidelines of limits of exposure to broad band inco-herent optical radiation (0.38 to 3 μm). Health Phys. 73, 1997; pp539–554.
[15]
Kang ZB, Ge Y, Chen Z, Cluette-Brown J, Laposata M, Leaf A, Kang JX. Adenoviral gene transfer of Caenorhabditis elegans n–3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes fatty acid composition in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.;98: 2001;pp4050–4054.
[16]
Bazan NG. Omega-3 fatty acids, pro-inflammatory signaling and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 10: 2007;pp136–141.
[17]
Sangiovanni JP, Chew EY. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 24: 2005;pp87–138.
[18]
Rotstein NP, Politi LE, German OL, Girotti R. Protective effect of docosahexaenoic acid on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of retina photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 44: 2003;pp2252–2259.
[19]
Birch EE, Birch DG, Hoffman DR, Uauy R. Dietary essential fatty acid supply and visual acuity development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 33: 1992;pp3242–3253.
[20]
Rotstein NP, Aveldano MI, Barrantes FJ, Politi LE. Docosa-hexaenoic acid is required for the survival of rat retinal photoreceptors in vitro. J Neurochem. 66: 1996;pp1851–1859.
[21]
Ronald TK, Ronald MB, Bernard B. Breakdown of the bloodaqueous barrier in the rabbit eye by infrared radiation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 30: 1989;pp717-22.
[22]
Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during assem-bly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 1970;227:680 5.
[23]
D. Virgil Alfaro III, Peter E. Liggett, William F. Mieler, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado, Rama D. Jager,and Yasuo Tano,Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Comprehensive Textbook , (Philadelphia,Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, (2006).
[24]
Roger L. Brauer, Safety and Health for Engineers: Second Edition, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2006
[25]
Adolph, A. R. Temporal transfer and nonlinearity properties of turtle ERG: Tuning by temperature, pharmacology, and light intensity.Vision Research 25:1985;pp 483-492.
[26]
Armington, J. C. and Adolph, A. R.Temperature effects on the electroretinogram of the isolated carp retina. Acta Oph-thalmologica 62: 1984;pp498-509
[27]
Kleinholz, L. H. () Hormonal regulation of retinal pigment migration in crustaceans.The Functional Organization of the Compound Eye1966;pp89-101
[28]
Crochet JJ, Gnyawali SC, Chen Y, Lemley EC, Wang LV, Chen WR. Temperature distribution in selective laser-tissue interaction. J Biomed Opt. 2006;11 (3:34031.
[29]
Darrigol O. A simplified genesis of quantum mechanics. Stud Hist Philos Mod Phys. 40: 2009;pp151–166.
[30]
Fu JWZG, Wan K, Lin LY. A possible model: photothermal excitation via an excited state in the Si:Pd level. J Appl Phys. 64 ,10: 1988;pp5266–5269.
[31]
Youssef P N, Sheibani N, Albert D M. Retinal light toxicity Eye (Lond) January; 25(1): 2011;pp1–14
[32]
Birngruber R, Gabel VP, Hillenkamp F. Experimental studies of laser thermal retinal injury. Health Phys. 1983;44 (5:519–531.
[33]
Birngruber R, Hillenkamp F, Gabel VP. Theoretical investi-gations of laser thermal retinal injury. Health Phys. 1985;48 (6:781–796.
[34]
Henriques FC. Studies of thermal injury. Arch Pathol. 43: 1947;pp489–502.
[35]
Masing, T. E., Rush S. J. and Brown I. R. Induction of a heat shockgene (hsp70) in rabbit retinal ganglion cells detected by in situ hybridization with plastic-embedded tissue.Neurochemical Research 15, 1990;pp1229-1235.
[36]
Tytell M., Barbe, M. F. and Brown I. R. Induction of heat shock (stress) protein 70 and its mRNA in the normal and light-damaged rat retina after whole body hyperthermia. J. Neurosci. Res. 38 , 1994;pp 19-31.
[37]
Tytell M. Heat Shock Proteins in the Retina and Optic Nerve.Heat Shock Proteins in the Nervous System 1994; (Chapter 4) 83-100
[38]
ChonY.S. and KimY.Y.Modification of Retinal Function by Hypothermia and Hyperthermia Journal of Photos-cience(2000), Vol. 7(4), pp. 161−167
[39]
Dyall SC, Michael-Titus AT. Neurological benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. Neuromolecular Med. 10: 2008;pp219–235.
[40]
Gawrisch K, Eldho NV, Holte LL. The structure of DHA in phospholipid membranes. Lipids.;38: 2003pp445–452.
[41]
Mitchell DC, Niu SL, Litman BJ. DHA-rich phospholipids optimize G-Protein-coupled signaling. J Pediatr. 143: 2003;ppS80–S86.
[42]
Calder PC. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients. Braz J Med Biol Res. 36: 2003;pp433–446.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186