The Effects of Population Density and Individual Diversity on Time and Energy Budgets of Animals
American Journal of Life Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 2, April 2013, Pages: 43-48
Received: Mar. 27, 2013;
Published: Apr. 10, 2013
Views 2934 Downloads 107
Feodor V. Kryazhimskiy, Institute of Plant & Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of RAS, 202, 8 Marta, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Kirill V. Maklakov, Institute of Plant & Animal Ecology, Ural Branch of RAS, 202, 8 Marta, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Follow on us
The effects of animal density, spatial heterogeneity, and diversity in individual responses to population density on daily time and energy budgets were studied by means of a simple time-energy model. The cost of interactions between individuals was expressed as a reduction of the time that an animal may spend for feeding and other activities. The value of daily production rate would decrease with the increase in density and/or in food availability. In this case, production rate would be a convex function of population density as well as of individual tolerance to the presence of other animals and the size of individual range. Therefore, under unfavourable conditions (high mean density and/or low mean food availability) both spatial heterogeneity and diversity in individual responses to the presence of neighbouring animals would lead to an increase in the mean production rate.
Population density; Diversity; Time Budget, Energy Budget
To cite this article
Feodor V. Kryazhimskiy,
Kirill V. Maklakov,
The Effects of Population Density and Individual Diversity on Time and Energy Budgets of Animals, American Journal of Life Sciences.
Vol. 1, No. 2,
2013, pp. 43-48.
Allee W.C., Emerson A.E., Park O., Park T., Schmidt K.P.(1949). Principles of Animal Ecology. W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia.
Dol'nik V.R. (1982). Methods of time and energy budgets study. In: Time and energy budgets in free-living birds Ed. V.R. Dol'nik Zoologicheskii Institut AN SSSR, Leningrad, pp. 3-37 (in Russian).
Holling C.S. (1965). The functional response of predators to prey density and its role in mimicry and population regulation. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Canada, 45, 1-60.
Houston A.I. and McNamara J. (1990). The effect of envi-ronmental variability on growth. -Oikos , 59, 15-20.
Gilliam J.F. and Frazer D.F. 1987. Habitat selection under predation hazard: test of a model with foraging minnows. Ecology, 68, 1856-1862.
Korytin N.S., Benenson I.E., Bolshakov V.N., and Kryaz-himskii F.V. 1992. A rational strategy of exploration of red fox populations with multiple equilibrium states. Trans. Congr. Int. Union Game Biol. , 18, 551-554.
Le Boulenge E. (1977). Influence of social factors on the metabolism of laboratory mice. - Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci., Ser. Sci. Biol., 25, 591-595.
McNamara J.M. and Houston A.I. (1987). A general frame-work for understanding the effects of variability and inter-ruptions inforaging behaviour. Acta Biotheoretica, 36, 3-22.
Mangel M. and Clark C.W. (1986). Towards a unified foraging theory. Ecology, 67, 1127-1138.
Myrcha A., Szwykowska M.M. (1969). Interrelations between dominance in the population and the level of metabolism in white mice males. Bull.Acad. Polon. Sci., Ser. Sci. Biol. 17, 599-601.
Pyke G.H. (1984). Optimal foraging theory: a critical review. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15, 523-575.
Stephens D.W. and Krebs J.R. (1986). Foraging Theory. Princeton Univ. Press. Princeton.
Weiner J. (1989). Metabolic constraints to mammalian energy budgets. Acta theriol. 34, 3-35.