Please enter verification code
Relationship Between Parasitic Infections in Diabetic Patients and the Importance of Raman Spectroscopy in Determining Parasites at Molecular Level
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 7, Issue 4, December 2019, Pages: 41-46
Received: Dec. 3, 2019; Accepted: Dec. 16, 2019; Published: Dec. 25, 2019
Views 740      Downloads 197
Berna Hamamci, Hatay Vocational School of Health Services, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey
Gunes Acikgoz, Hatay Vocational School of Health Services, Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey
Article Tools
Follow on us
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of protein, carbohydrate and fat. Insulin secretion, insulin action, or both cause to diabetes mellitus. According to the World Health Organization, the number of diabetic patients in the world is around 200 million and it is stated that this number will reach 300 million in 2025. Parasitic diseases are widespread all over the world and are a major public health problem, especially in underdeveloped or developing countries. It ranks first among the diseases that should be controlled by the World Health Organization. Among the factors causing parasitic diseases include protozoa, helminths and arthropods. In certain geographical areas where parasitic infections are common, many autoimmune diseases such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type1diabetes (T1DM), multiple sclerosis (MS), and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are reported to have a lower incidence. The relationship between helminth infections on the onset and development of T1DM, one of the multigenetic diseases affected by environmental factors, is remarkable. It is not clear how helminth infections prevent T1DM development. In diabetic patients, it is known that there is a decrease in immune system functions, especially cellular immunity, and in these patients CD8 and CD16 values for suppressor T cells and NK cells are decreased compared to normal individuals. Therefore, it does not prevent the development of diabetes and can be seen more in patients with diabetes. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) is a vibrational technique due to inelastic scattering that occurs during the interaction of monochromatic laser beams with molecules. It is preferred in biomedical examinations because RS does not damage the sample and can be obtained quickly by non-invasive method. DM and different parasitic diseases can be determined by analyzing the spectra obtained in RS examinations. The obtained Raman spectra of different molecular systems are different and each system has its own fingerprint.
Parasitic Infections, Diabetes Mellitus, Raman Spectroscopy
To cite this article
Berna Hamamci, Gunes Acikgoz, Relationship Between Parasitic Infections in Diabetic Patients and the Importance of Raman Spectroscopy in Determining Parasites at Molecular Level, International Journal of Immunology. Special Issue: Parasitology. Vol. 7, No. 4, 2019, pp. 41-46. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.20190704.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2009, 32 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1): 62–67.
Yılmaz H. Tip 1 Diabetes mellituslu Çocuklarda Gastroparezi, Glisemik Kontrol ve Helicobacter pylori Enfeksiyonu İlişkisi. Tıpta Uzmanlık Tezi. 2005, Kayseri.
Alemzadeh R, Wyatt DT, Diabetes mellitus in children. In: Behrman RF, Kliegman RM, Jenson HB (eds), Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics (17 th ed) W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia; 2000, 1947-1972.
Saka HN. Diabetes mellitus. In: Günöz H, Öcal G, Yordam N (eds), Pediatrik Endokrinoloji (1 th ed) Pediatrik Endokrinoloji ve Oksoloji Derneği Yayınları, Ankara. 2003, 415-457.
Saka HN. Diabetes mellitus. In: Neyzi O, Ertuğrul T (eds), Pediatri (3nd ed) Nobel Tıp Kitabevi, İstanbul, 2002, 1306-1327.
Bağrıaçık N. Tanı, komplikasyonlara yaklaşım, tedavi konsensus el kitabı. Novo Nordisk diabet servisi yayınları. 1997, İstanbul.
King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global Burden of Diabetes 1995–2025. Prevelance, numerical estimates and projections. Diabetes Care. 1998, 21: 1414–1421.
Satman İ, Yılmaz T, Şengul A. Population- based study of diabetes and risk characteristics in Turkey. Diabetes Care; 2002, 25: 1551- 1556.
Zimmet P, Dowse G, Finch C, King H. The epidemiology and natural history of NIDDM -lessons from South Pasific. Diabetes Metabol Rev; 1990, 6: 91-124.
Türken M. Tip 1 ve Tip 2 Diyabetes mellitus hastalıkların Patogenezinde D vitamini eksikliğinin Rolünün Araştırılması. Biyokimya Uzmanlık Tezi. 2011, Diyarbakır.
Saltiel AR. New perspectives into the molecular pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Cell; 2001, 104: 517-29.
Özcel MA. Genel Parazitoloji. Özcel MA, Özbel Y, Ak M, (eds). Özcel’in Tıbbi Parazit Hastalıkları. İzmir. 2007, 3-76.
Özcel MA, İmmunoparazitolojiye Giriş. Özcel MA, İnci A, Turgay N, Köroğlu E (eds). Tıbbi ve Veteriner İmmunoparazitoloji. İzmir. 2007, 5-18.
Korkmaz İ, Eren ŞH, H, Beydilli İ. Diabet Hastalarında Toxoplazma gondii Antikorları Seroprevelansı. C. Ü. Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi. 2006, 28 (1): 7–10.
Jarvis D, Chinn S, Luczynska C, Burney P. The association of family size with atopy and atopic disease. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997, 27: 240-245.
Strachan DP, Taylor EM, Carpenter RG. Family size, neonatal infection and hay fever in adolescence. Arch Dis Child; 1996, 74: 422-426.
Von Mutius E, Martinez FD, Fritzsch C, Nicolai T, Reitmeir P, Thiemann HH. Skin test reactivity and number of siblings. BMJ, 1994, 308: 692-695.
Zaccone P, Fehervari Z, Phillips JM, Dunne DW, Cooke A. Parasitic worms and inflammatory diseases. Parasite Immunol; 2006, 28 (10): 515–523.
Gale EA. The rise of childhood type 1 diabetes in the 20th century. Diabetes; 2002, 51: 3353–3361.
Pugliatti M, Sotgiu S, Rosati G. The worldwide prevalence of multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2002; 104: 182–191.
Liu Z, Liu Q, Bleich D, Salgame P, Gause WC. Regulation of type 1 diabetes, tuberculosis, and asthma by parasites. J Mol Med; 2010, 88 (1): 27-38.
Sikirzhytski V, Sikirzhytskaya A, Lednev IK. Multidimensional Raman Spectroscopic Signatures as a Tool for Forensic Identification of Body Fluid Traces: A Review. Applied spectroscopy; 2011, Nov; 65 (11): 1223-32.
Westa MJ and Wentb MJ. Detection of drugs of abuse by Raman spectroscopy. Drug Test. Analysis; 2011, 3: 532–538.
Hanlon EB, Manoharan R, Koo T-W, Shafer KE, Motz JT, Fitzmaurice M, Kramer JR, Itzkan I, Dasari RR and Feld MS. Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy. Phys. Med. Biol; 2000, 45, R1–R59.
Ellis DI. and Goodacre R. Metabolic fingerprinting in disease diagnosis: biomedical applications of infrared and Raman spectroscopy Analyst; 2006, 131: 875–885.
Guevara E, Torres-Galván JC, Ramírez-Elías MG, Luevano-Contreras C, González FJ. Use of Raman spectroscopy to screen diabetes mellitus with machine learning tools. Biomed Opt Express; 2018, 9 (10): 4998–5010.
David P-G, Marzec KM, Hudson A, et al. Parasites under the Spotlight: Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy to Malaria Research. Chem. Rev; 2018, 118: 5330−5358.
Saunders KA, Raine T, Cooke A, Lawrence CE. Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection. Infect Immun; 2007, 75 (1): 397-407.
Faveuuw C, Mallevaey T, Paschinger K. Schistosome N-glycans containing core alpha 3-fucose and core beta 2-xylose epitopes are strong inducers of Th2 responses in mice. Eur J Immunol; 2003, 33: 1271-1281.
Raz I, Eldor R, Naparstek Y. Immune modulation for prevention of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Trends Biotechnol; 2005, 23 (3): 128–134.
Mohebbatıkaljahı H. Tip 1 Diyabette Interlökin-10 Gen Ppromotör Bölgesi Polimorfizminin Çalışılması. Gazi Üniversitesi. Doktora tezi, 2007, Ankara.
Liu Q, Sundar K, Mishra PK, Mousavi G, Liu Z, Gaydo A, Alem F, Lagunoff D, Bleich D, Gause WC. Helminth infection can reduce insulitis and type 1 diabetes through CD25- and IL10-independent mechanisms. Infect Immun; 2009, 77 (12): 5347-58.
Toprak DE. İmmun ve Metabolik Regülasyon Arasındaki Karmaşık İlişki: Multiple Skleroz Patogenezinde Leptinin Rolü İstanbul Cerrahpaşa Öğrenci Bilimsel Dergisi 2010, 3 (4).
Brode S, Raine T, Zaccone P, Cooke A. Cyclophosphamide-induced type-1 diabetes in the NOD mouse is associated with a reduction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol; 2006, 177 (10): 6603–6612.
Mallevaey T, Zanetta JP, Faveeuw C, Fontaine J, Maes E, Platt F, Capron M, de-Moraes ML, Trottein F. Activation of invariant NKT cells by the helminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni. J Immunol; 2006, 176 (4): 2476–2485.
Mylaones KJ, Nair MG, Prieto-Lafuente L, Poope D, Allen JE. Alternatively activated macrophages elicited by helminth infections can be reprorammed to enable microbial killing. J Immunol; 2009, 182 (5): 3084-94.
Joner G, Stene LC, Sovik O. Nationwide, prospective registration of type 1 diabetes in children aged < 15 years in Norway 1989–98: no increase but significant regional variation in incidence. Diabetes Care; 2004, 27: 1618–1622.
Özcel MA.. Schistosomiosis. Özcel MA, Özbel Y, Ak M, (eds). Özcel’in Tıbbi Parazit Hastalıkları. İzmir. 2007, 475-498.
Roberts LS, Janovy J, Gerald D, Schmidt Larry S. Roberts. Foundations of Parasitology. Seventh edition, Mc Graw Hill Companies, Singapore. 2006.
Zaccone P, Burton OT, Gibbs S, Miller N, Jones FM, Dunne DW, Cooke A. Immune modulation by Schistosoma mansoni antigens in NOD mice: effects on both innate and adaptive immune systems. J Biomed Biotechnol; 2010, 795210.
Gökçe C, Yazar S, Bayram F, Gündoğan K, Tip 1 Diyabette Toxoplasma gondii Antikorları. Turkiye Klinikleri J Med. 2008, 28: (5).
Hökelek M, Kahraman H, Uyar Y, Güdül Havuz S. Tip II Diabetes Mellitus’lu Hastalarda Toksoplazma Antikorlarının Seroprevalansı. Klinik Bilimler & Doktor 2000, 6 (3): 302-304.
Gomez Marín JE, Pinon JM, Bonhomme A, Guenounou M. Does human toxoplasmosis involve an imbalance in T1/T2 cytokines? Med Hypotheses; 1997, 48 (2): 161-9.
World malaria report, 2008. World Health Organisation. Switzerland. WHO Press.
Özcel MA. Sıtma ve İmmunolojisi. Özcel MA, İnci A, Turgay N, Köroğlu E (eds). Tıbbi ve Veteriner İmmunoparazitoloji. İzmir: 2007, 121-126.
Danquah I, Bedu-Addo G, Mockenhaupt FP. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and increased risk for malaria infection. Emerg Infect Dis; 2010, 16 (10): 1601-4.
Cestari TF, Martignago BF. Scabies, pediculosis, bedbugs, and stinkbugs: uncommon presentations. Clin Dermatol; 2005, 23 (6): 545-54.
Clifford CW, Fulk GW. Association of diabetes, lash loss, and Staphylococcus aureus with infestation of eyelids by Demodex folliculorum (Acari: Demodicidae). J Med Entomol; 1990, 27 (4): 467–470.
Akdeniz S, Bahceci M, Tuzcu AK, Harman M, Alp S, Bahceci S. Demodex folliculorum larger in diabetic patients? J Eur Acad Dermatol VenereolIs; 2002, 16 (5): 539-41.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186