International Journal of Immunology
Volume 7, Issue 1, March 2019, Pages: 1-4
Received: Jan. 4, 2019;
Accepted: Jan. 31, 2019;
Published: Mar. 6, 2019
Views 764 Downloads 201
Charles Edward Ng’Hwaya Masule, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Process Engineering and Environmental Technology, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
Because of the belief that lactic acid plays a role in the generation of antibodies in the muscles in humans, the aim of this study had been to establish the structure and the proper designation for the pair of anantiomers of lactic acid and for the peptide chain for distinct pathways in the generation of beneficial and destructive antibodies and to support the belief by inducing immunity against the scorpion’s poison in humans and mice. I had to designate the structures for the pair of anantiomers of lactic acid and for the protein’s peptide chain by adopting Emil Fischer’s naming convention for glucose in terms of the “D-” and “L-” name prefixes and thereupon develop an approach of uniquely marring the anantiomers in the “D-” to “L-” fashion and vice versa. I had to cause a scorpion’s bite on my right knee and another bite on my 1st toe of the right foot 28 days after the 1st bite. I had injected a plain solution of scorpion’s poison of 2 bite-equivalent units in mice in the first instance and I added D-lactic acid to the replica of the same in the second instance. D-(+)-lactic acid will refer to the lactic acid which is produced in the muscles of humans and other mammals, whereas L-(-)-lactic acid will refer to a mirror image of D-(+)-lactic acid which might be produced by lactic acid bacteria via fermentation and might also be chemically synthesized. The D-(+)-peptide chain found in humans and other mammals has its mirror image, the L-(+)-peptide chain, in pathogens. The effect of the scorpion’s bite on the knee subsided after 24 hours whereas the repeated bite on the 1st toe of the foot 28 days since the first bite went without trouble. The group of mice which received a shot of a plain solution of scorpion’s poison virtually paralyzed thereupon for 24 hours whereas the group which received the replica of the same mixed with D-lactic acid went unaffected during the observation. An antigen and its corresponding neutralizing antibody make a pair of anantiomers linked via a sugar-bridge. D-lactic acid must combine with the antigen’s L-peptide chain for beneficial antibodies whereas L-lactic acid must combine with the innocent D-peptide chain for destructive antibodies in autoimmunity but beneficial against tumors and cancer cells. The pancreas and the tissues of the muscles in humans have local capability to generate antibodies of global effect.
Charles Edward Ng’Hwaya Masule,
Essence of Antibody Generation and Autoimmunity, International Journal of Immunology.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 1-4.
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Bijker, E. M. and Sauerwein, R. W.: Enhancement of naturally acquired immunity against malaria by drug use, Journal of Medical Microbiology (2012), 61, 904–910 DOI 10.1099/jmm.0.041277-0.
Doolan, D. L., Dobaño, C. and Baird, J. K.: Acquired Immunity to Malaria, Clinical Microbiology Reviews (2009) Jan; 22(1): 13–36. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00025-08 PMCID: PMC2620631 PMID: 19136431
Mackinnon, M. J., Mwangi, T. W., Snow, R. W., Marsh, K. and Williams, T. N.: Heritability of Malaria in Africa, PLoS Med (2005), 2(12): e340.
Morrison, R. T. and Boyd, R. N.: Organic Chemistry, 3rd Edition (Allan and Bacon Inc.: London, 1973).
Morrison, R. T. and Boyd, R. N.: Organic Chemistry, 4th Edition (Allan and Bacon Inc.: London, 1983).
Morrison, R. T. and Boyd, R. N.: Organic Chemistry, 5th Edition (Allan and Bacon Inc.: London, 1987).
Morrison, R. T. and Boyd, R. N.: Organic Chemistry, 6th Edition (Prentice Hall: New Jersey, 1992).
Roca-Feltrer, A., Carneiro, I., Smith, L., Schellenberg, J. R., Greenwood, B. and Schellenberg, D.: The Age Patterns of Severe Malaria Syndromes in Sub-Saharan Africa across a Range of Transmission Intensities and Seasonality Settings, Malar J (2010), 9: 282
 Snow, R. W., Bastos de Azevedo, I., Lowe, B. S., Kabiru, E. W., Nevill, C. G., Mwankusye, S., Kassiga, G., Marsh, K. and Teuscher, T.: Severe Childhood Malaria in two Areas of markedly different Falciparum Transmission in East Africa. Acta Trop (1994), 57(4): 289-300.
 SOON, T. H. and ENG, T. P.: Treatment Failure of Falciparum Malaria with Fansidar in Tawau Sabah, January – June 1982, Med. J. Malaysia Vol. 38 No. 3 September 1983.