Prevalence of Sickle Cell Among Patients Attending Immunogenetic Diagnostic Laboratory Akwanga, Nasarawa State Nigeria
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 17-24
Received: Sep. 22, 2017;
Accepted: Oct. 10, 2017;
Published: Mar. 7, 2018
Views 2234 Downloads 160
Raymond Tersoo Ada, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Patrick Ije Ode, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Stephen Oche Onah, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Sickle Cell Disease is an inherited blood disease caused by abnormal haemoglobin. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of sickle cell among patients attending Immunogenetic Diagnostic Laboratory Akwanga, Nassarawa State. Aseptically, 2mls of blood was collected from the dorsal vein of the patients into Ethylene Diamine Tetra-acetic Acid (EDTA) bottles and mixed gently to prevent clotting. A small quantity of haemolysate from each of the subjects was placed on a cellulose acetate membrane and carefully introduced into the Electrophoretic tank containing Tris-EDTA buffer at pH 8.6. Electrophoretic separation was then allowed to take place for 15-20 minutes at an Electromotive Force (EMF) of 160V. A total of three hundred and eighty three (283) patients consisting of 195 (50.9%) males and 188 (49.1%) females were sampled in the study. Questionnaires were administered to the patients involved in the study as to obtain demographic and other relevant information regarding the research. The prevalence of the HbAA, HbAS and HbSS were 72.32%, 25.06% and 2.60% respectively. Statistically, there was a significant difference (p<0.05) between gender, age, locality and the prevalence of the Sickle Cell as observed in this study. The prevalence recorded for HbSS in this study is low compared to the value range of 1-10% expected for Nigeria. Based on the findings from this study, it is recommended that genetic counseling policies should be developed to enable prospective couples make decisions aimed at reducing the sickling gene pool in our population.
Raymond Tersoo Ada,
Patrick Ije Ode,
Stephen Oche Onah,
Prevalence of Sickle Cell Among Patients Attending Immunogenetic Diagnostic Laboratory Akwanga, Nasarawa State Nigeria, International Journal of Immunology.
Vol. 6, No. 1,
2018, pp. 17-24.
A. Bakare, M. Azeez, and J., Agbolade. Gene frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin variants in Ogbomosho, South West, Nigeria. Global Journal of Medical Science, 3(6):17-22. 2004.
J. Boyd, A. Watkins, C. Price and M. Debaun. Inadequate community knowledge about sickle cell disease among African-American women. Journal of the National Medical Association, 97(1):63-67. 2005.
P. Frenette, and G. Atweh. Sickle disease: old discoveries, new concepts, and future promise. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 117(4):850-858. 2007.
O. Mustapha and F. Abubakar. Study of the prevalence of Sickle Cell Disease in Kano metropolis and its suburbs in Northern Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 10(13):219-225. 2001.
A. Grant, C. Parker, L. Jordan, M. Hulihan M. Creary and M. Lloyd. Public health implications of sickle cell trait: A report of the CDC meeting. American Journal of preventive Medicine, 41(4):435-439. 2011.
S. Miller, L. Sleeper, C. Pegelow, L. Enos, W. Wang, S., Weiner, D. A., Wethers, J. Smith, and T. Kinny. Prediction of adverse outcomes in children with sickle cell disease. New English Journal of Medicine, 34(2):83-89. 2000.
R. Akhigbe, Ige, A. Afolabi, O., Azeez, G., Adegunlola, and J. Bamidele. Prevalence of haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups in Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Nigeria. Trends in Medical Research, 4(2):24-29. 2009.
I. Oluwadare, and S. Shonekan. ABO and Rhesus blood type distribution in students admitted into Moshood Abiola Polytechnic Abeokuta, Nigeria. African Journalof Biotechnology, 7(1):1641-1643. 2006.
K. Acharya, C. Lang and L. Ross. A pilot study to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about sickle cell trait and disease. Journal of the National Medical Association, 10(11):1143-1172. 2009.
A. Adeyemi, O. Ladipo, D. Omolade and A. Ogbaro. Frequency of distribution of Haemoglobin Variants among teenagers. British Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research, 14(4):1-5. 2016.
M. Creary, D. Williamson and R. Kulkarni. Sickle cell disease report: current activities, public health implications and future directions. Journal of women’s health, 16(3):575-582. 2007.
E. Abioye, O. Oyegbade, I. Bello and C. Osakwe. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Rural Health, 16 (1):43-49. 2009.
P. Ozoegwu and A. Onwurah. Prevalence of haemoglobinopathy and Malaria disease in the population of old Aguata division, Anambra State, Nigeria. Biokemistri, 15(9):57-66. 2003.
S. Lanzkron, J. Strouse, R. Wilson, M. Beach, C. Haywood and H. Park. Systematic reiew: hydroxyurea for the treatment of adults with sickle cell disease. Annual International Medicine, 148(12):939-955. 2008.
Z. Jeremiah. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups among students of African descent in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. African Health Science, 6(3):177-181. 2006.
http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akwanga. Retrieved 10th August 2017.
http://www.nasarawastate.gov.ng. Retrieved on 2nd October 2017.
A. Esan, C. Omisakin, and D. Okhuakhua. Frequency distribution of haemoglobin variant, ABO and Rhesus blood group distribution among children in Ido/Osi Local Government, Ekiti State Nigeria. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science, 21(2):58-61. 2012.
N. Thomas, O. Ernest, I. Nkoyo, and A. Rahman. Frequency of haemoglobin variants among Yorubas in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria: A Pilot study. Nigerian Journal of Experimental Clinical Biological Science, 1(4):39-42. 2013.
E. Adu, C. Isibor, and E. Ezie. Prevalence of haemoglobin variants among the Ika ethnic nationality of Delta State. International Journal of Medicine and Medicine and Biomedical Research, 3(2):63-67. 2014.
O. Erhabor, T. Adias, Z. Jeremiah and M. Hart. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO, and Rhesus blood group distribution among students in the Niger Delta of Nigeria. Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International, 2(7):41-46. 2010.
G. Pennap, E. Envoh, and I. Igbawua. Frequency distribution of haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rhesus blood groups among students of African descent. British Microbiology Journal, 1(2):33-40. 2011.
B. Mondal, S. Maiti, B. Biswas, D. Ghosh and S. Paul. Prevalenc of haemoglobinopathy, ABO and Rhesus blood groups in rural areas of West Bengal, India. Journal of Research Medical Science, 17(3):772-776. 2012.
U. Egesie, O. Egesie, I. Usar and T. Johnbull. Distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood and haemoblobin electrophoresis among the undergraduate students of Niger Delta University, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Science, 23(4):5-8. 2008.
A. Nwafor and B. Banigo. A comparison of measured and predicted haemoglobin genotype in a Nigerian population in Bonny, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied and Environmental Managements, 5(7):79-81. 2001.
P. G. Sant’Ana, A. M. Araujo, C. T. Pimenta, M. L. Bezerra, S. P. Junior, V. M. Neto, J. S. Dias, A. F. Lopes, D. R. Alves, M. Pinheiro. Clinical and laboratory Profile of Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia. Brazilian Journal of Hematology and Hemotherapy. 39(1):40–4. 2017.
A. Yakubu, L. Zama, B. Sanusi, P. Frank, A. Ezimah and W. Abdullahi. Haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern among residents in Sokoto, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Disorders, 3(6):1-5. 2012.
D. Powers, D. Elliot, L. Chan, J. Niland, A. Hiti, L. Opas and C. Johnson. Chronic renal failure in sickle cell disease: risk factors, clinical course and mortality. Annual International Medicine, 115(17):614-620. 1991.
I. Odame. Developing a global agenda for sickle cell disease: report of an international symposium and workshop in Cotonou, Republic of Benin. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(8):571-573. 2010.
L. Tshilolo, E. Kafando, M. Sawadogo, F. Cotton, F. Vertoghen, A. Ferster and B. Gulbis. Neonatal screening and clinical care programmes for sickle cell disorders in sub-saharan Africa: lessons from pilot studies. Public Health, 122(23):933-941. 2008.
C. V. Akre, N. D. Sukhsohale, S. S. Kubde, S. B. Agrawal, M. B. Khamgaokar, S. M. Chaudhary, M. A. Dhoble. Do gender differences influence the prevalence of sickle cell disorder and related morbidities among school children in rural central India? International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health. 5 (5): 348 – 358. 2013.
M. M. Sabahelzain and H. Hamamy. The ethnic distribution of sickle cell disease in Sudan. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2014; 8: 13. doi:10.11604/pamj.2014.18.13.3280. 2014.
E. A. Oyedele, A. Emmanuel, L. D. Gaji, D. E. Ahure. Awareness and acceptance of premarital genotype screening among youths in a Nigerian community. International Journal of Medical and Health Research 1(1): 17-21. 2015.
K. G. Precious, F. B. Seiyefa, O. Best. Knowledge, Attitude and Uptake of Premarital Screening for the Sickle Trait Among Married Couples in a Semi-Urban Community in South-South Nigeria. European Journal of Preventive Medicine. 3(3): 49-54. 2015.
N. I. Ugwu. Sickle cell disease: Awareness, knowledge and attitude among undergraduate students of a Nigerian tertiary educational institution. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 7 (5): 87 – 92. 2016.
A. S. Adewoyin, A. E. Alagbe, B. O. Adedokun, and N. T. Idubor. Knowledge, Attitude and Control Practices Of Sickle Cell Disease among Youth Corps Members in Benin City, Nigeria. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine. 13(2): 35-42. 2015.
E. P. Ameade, B. S. Mohammed, G. K. Helegbe, S. Yakubu. Sickle Cell Gene Transmission: Do Public Servants in Tamale, Ghana Have the Right Knowledge and Attitude to Curb It? Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015 (5): 299-308. 2015.