Immunodiagnostic Potential of an In-Vitro Interferon-Gamma Release Assay for Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among Apparently Healthy Individuals in Okada Community, Nigeria
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 5, Issue 3, June 2017, Pages: 41-48
Received: Mar. 4, 2017; Accepted: Mar. 24, 2017; Published: May 9, 2017
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Authors
Benson Olu Akinshipe, Departments of Medical Microbiology, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University & Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada, Nigeria
Peter Chinedu Ezeani, Kamorass Specialist Clinics Laboratories, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
Kester Awharentomah Digban, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria
Friday Alfred Ehiaghe, Department of Hematology, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria
Emmanuel Babatunde Adedeji, Environmental Biology Research Unit, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Joy Imuetinyan Ehiaghe, Lahor Research Laboratory and Medical Centre, Benin City, Nigeria
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Abstract
A major challenge in the global Tuberculosis (TB) control is the diagnosis and treatment of Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI). In the absence of any reference standard test for the diagnosis of LTBI, this study set out to compare the performance of the two current immune-based tests, Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and Quantiferon–TB Gold In–Tube (QFT-GIT) ELISA in the diagnosis of LTBI. Two sets of diagnostic results for 196 apparently healthy volunteers from a cross-section of Okada Community, Edo State, Nigeria were compared in terms of age, occupation, BCG-vaccination status, prior TST and cigarette smoking history. Overall, 56 (28.6%) and 81 (41.3%) of the subjects were diagnosed with LTBI by the QFT-GIT test and TST respectively. The LTBI prevalence as assessed by the QFT-GIT test was significantly higher among the non-BCG-vaccinated, compared to the BCG-vaccinees (X2=18.79, df=1, p=0.0001). The highest concordance (QFT-GIT+ve/TST+ve) was found in the occupation categories (Ʀ=-0.009, p=0.747) and the highest discordance(QFT-GIT –ve/TST +ve) was with respect to the BCG-vaccination status (Ʀ=-0.194, p=0.046).The disparity in the performance of the two tests is attributable to the high false – positive TST results, which is a direct reflection of high (90.8%) BCG vaccination level among the study population. It is advocated that the two-step testing approach, using the QFT-GIT assay as a confirmatory test for LTBI after initial positive screening by the TST, be introduced into the TB control strategy in TB – laden communities with high BCG vaccination coverage.
Keywords
Interferon-gamma Release Assay, Tuberculin Skin Test, Latent Tuberculosis Infection, Immunodiagnostic, Okada
To cite this article
Benson Olu Akinshipe, Peter Chinedu Ezeani, Kester Awharentomah Digban, Friday Alfred Ehiaghe, Emmanuel Babatunde Adedeji, Joy Imuetinyan Ehiaghe, Immunodiagnostic Potential of an In-Vitro Interferon-Gamma Release Assay for Latent Tuberculosis Infection Among Apparently Healthy Individuals in Okada Community, Nigeria, International Journal of Immunology. Vol. 5, No. 3, 2017, pp. 41-48. doi: 10.11648/j.iji.20170503.11
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Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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