The Levels of Serum C - reactive protein and Creatine Kinase-MM in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Subjects Co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum
International Journal of Immunology
Volume 5, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 37-40
Received: Mar. 4, 2017;
Accepted: Mar. 24, 2017;
Published: Apr. 14, 2017
Views 2234 Downloads 118
Digban Kester, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria
Ehiaghe Friday Alfred, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria; Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, College of Health Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria
The present study was designed to determine the levels of C-reactive protein and creatine kinase-MM in Nigerian naïve (stage 2) HIV seropositive subjects co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum. A total of 204 subjects (aged between 18 and 45 years) were randomly studied. Among these were 74 naïve (stage 2) HIV seropositive subjects (confirmed by Western blot method), 70 naïve (stage 2) HIV seropositive subjects co-infected with P. falciparum (confirmed by Western blot and microscopic methods respectively) and 60 apparently healthy individuals (confirmed to be negative for Human immunodeficiency virus and P. falciparum by Western blot and microscopic methods respectively). Absolute lymphocyte counts was estimated using Sysmex® Automated Hematology Analyzer, whereas CD4+ cell count was estimated using Partec® Cyflow Counter. C-reactive protein and creatine kinase was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. The creatine kinase-MM and C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly higher in HIV seropositive subjects co-infected with malaria when compared with the controls subjects (P = 0.000) respectively. Whereas the absolute lymphocyte counts and CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower in HIV seropositive subjects co-infected with malaria when compared with the controls subjects (P = 0.000). The increased expression of C- reactive protein and creatine kinase-MM coupled with the decrease in absolute lymphocyte and CD4+ cell counts significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of HIV and P. falciparum infections.
Ehiaghe Friday Alfred,
The Levels of Serum C - reactive protein and Creatine Kinase-MM in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Subjects Co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum, International Journal of Immunology.
Vol. 5, No. 2,
2017, pp. 37-40.
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Gabay C and Kushner I. Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to inflammation. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340: 448-454.
Miller KD, White NJ, Lott JA, Roberts JM, Greenwood BM. Biochemical evidence of muscle injury in African children with severe malaria. J Infect Dis. 1989; 159: 139-142.
Erlinger TP, Platz EA, Rifai N, Helzlsouer KJ. C-reactive protein and the risk incident colorectal cancer. JAMA. 2004; 291:585-590.
Ridker PM. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation. 2003; 107: 363-369.
Grutzmeier S and Sandstrom E. C-reactive protein levels in HIV complicated by opportunistic infections and infections with common bacterial pathogens. Scand J Infect Dis. 1999; 31: 229-234.
Jahoor F, Gazzard B, Phillips G. The acute-phase protein response to human immunodeficiency virus infection in human subjects. Am J Physiol. 1999; 276: 1092-1098.
Jupe D. The acute phase response and laboratory testing. AustFam Physician. 1996; 25:324-329.
Henry K, Kitch D, Dube M. Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group. C-reactive protein levels over time and cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected individuals suppressed on an indinavir-based regimen: AIDS Clinical Trials Group 5056s. AIDS.2004; 18: 2434-2437.
Sklar PA, Nayak GS, Blackwelder WC. Predictive value of C-reactive protein versus traditional risk factors for cardiovascular events among HIV infected patients. Paper presented at 44th Annual Meeting of the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, October 30-November 2, 2004; Washington, DC, Abstract H-159.
Ehiaghe FA, Onyenekwe CC, Akosile CO, Okoye C, Maruf FA, Agbonlahor DE, Uwabor CI, Ehiaghe IJ, Ogbu EC. The expression pattern and role of interferon gamma genes in exhaustive exercise. J Advan Bio. 2016. 9: 1903-1910.
PCC. Typical steps of particle analysis using Partec Cyflow Counter. Instrument operating manual, partec GmbH Otto-Hann-str 32, D-48161 Munster, Germany, Pp 5-8.
Ehiaghe FA. Some physiochemical changes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Benin City, Nigeria. Inter J Bio and ChemSci. 2015, 9: 2582-2588.
Ehiaghe F A, Onyenekwe C C, Akosile C O, Ehiaghe IJ, Oyeyemi A W, Ifeanyichukwu M O. Some lymphocytic gene expression patterns associated with acute exercise in young male undergraduates. Am J Biotec and Mol Sci. 2016, 5: 8-22.
Timothy M E D, Emsri P W S, Sasithorn P T H, Paul H, Nicholas J W. Skeletal muscle involvement in falciparum malaria: Biochemical and ultra-structural study. Infec Dis Soc Am. 1999. 29: 831-835.
Bryan L, Richey A S, Larry A K, Wendy P, Frank J P, Barbara V, Stephen J G. C-reactive protein is a marker for human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. Arch Intern Med. 2006. 166: 64-70.
White NJ and Ho M. The pathophysiology of malaria. Adv Parasitol. 1992. 31: 83-173.
Lederman M M, Connick E, Landay A, Kuritzkes D R, Spritzler J, Clair M. Immunologic responses associated with 12 weeks of combination antiretroviral therapy: Results of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 315. J Infec Dis. 1998. 178: 70-79.
Lederman M M. Immune restoration and CD4+ T cell function with antiretroviral therapies. AIDS.2001. 15: 11-15.
Akanmu R A, Akinsete I, Eshojonie A O, Davies A O. Absolute lymphocytes count as surrogate for CD4 cell count in monitoring response to antiretroviral therapy. Nig Post Med J AIDS. 2001. 8: 105-111.
Palella F J, Delori-Knoll M, Chmiel J S. Survival benefit of initiating antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected persons in different CD4+ cell strata. Ann Intern Med. 2003. 138: 620-626.