Biochemical Study of the Effects of Insulin Resistance on Sex Hormones in Men and Women Type-2 Diabetic Patients / Meisan-Iraq
Advances in Biochemistry
Volume 5, Issue 5, October 2017, Pages: 79-88
Received: Aug. 12, 2017; Accepted: Aug. 28, 2017; Published: Sep. 12, 2017
Views 155      Downloads 56
Adnan Jassim Mohammed Al-Fartosy, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq
Ibrahim Majar Mohammed, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq
Article Tools
Follow on us
Obesity, a case accompanied by increased insulin resistance, is associated with low follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total testosterone and progesterone and estradiol levels. As there is no scientific report on diabetes complications and its effects on type 2 diabetic patients in the province of Meisan (southern of Iraq), the present investigation was done to evaluate the levels of body mass index, insulin resistance and the levels of sex hormones in serum of both men and women type 2 diabetic patients. Data obtained in the present study, show a significant increase in insulin resistance level (4.24 ± 0.57 Vs. 1.36±0.23 and 4.31 ± 0.59 Vs. 1.18 ±0.13, P < 0.05) respectively, in men and women type 2 diabetic patients compared to control. Also, the present study show a significant decrease in follicle stimulating hormone level (7.24±1.14 Vs. 12.79 ±0.87 and 38.14 ± 4.44 Vs. 54.16 ± 3.64, P < 0.05), a significant decrease in luteinizing hormone level (5.32 ± 0.74 Vs. 7.54± 1.27 and 30.12 ± 4.20 Vs. 43.33±2.07, P < 0.05), a significant decrease in testosterone level (4.69 ± 0.92 Vs. 8.20 ± 2.2 and 0.57 ± 0.11 Vs. 0.69± 0.21, P < 0.01), a significant decrease in progesterone level (0.25 ±0.03 Vs. 0.42 ± 0.10 and 0.30 ± 0.04 Vs. 0.46± 0.12, P < 0.05) and a significant decrease in estradiol level (25.04 ± 3.35 Vs. 33.80±8.4 and 34.33 ± 4.21 Vs. 41.42±5.64, P < 0.05) respectively, in men and women type 2 diabetic patients compared to control. In conclusion, the findings further demonstrated that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and reduction of fertility. Therefore, the associated of obesity and increased insulin resistance is accompanied by low levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, progesterone and estradiol in both men and women.
Insulin Resistance, Obesity, Sex Hormones, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
To cite this article
Adnan Jassim Mohammed Al-Fartosy, Ibrahim Majar Mohammed, Biochemical Study of the Effects of Insulin Resistance on Sex Hormones in Men and Women Type-2 Diabetic Patients / Meisan-Iraq, Advances in Biochemistry. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 79-88. doi: 10.11648/j.ab.20170505.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
David G, Gardner and Dolores. Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. 2011.
Craig ME, Hattersley A and Donaghue KC. Definition, epidemiology and classification of diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatric diabetes. 2009; 10: 3-12.
Shepherd PR and Kahn BB. Glucose transporters and insulin action: Implications for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 341(4): 248-257.
Zimmet P Alberti KG and Shaw J. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic; Nature (London). 2001; 414: 782-787.
Saltiel AR and Kahn CR. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature. 2001; 414: 799-806.
Bak JF, Moller N, Schmitz O, Saaek A and Pedersen O. In vivo insulin action and muscle glycogen synthase activity in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Effects of diet treatment. Diabetologia. 1992; 35: 777-784.
Tsai EC, Matsumoto AM, Fujimoto WY and Boyko EJ. Association of bioavailable, free, and total testosterone with insulin resistance: influence of sex hormone-binding globulin and body fat. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27: 861-868.
Isidori AM, Caprio M, Strollo F, Moretti C, Frajese G, Isidori A and Fabbri A. Leptin and androgens in male obesity: Evidence for leptin contribution to reduced androgen levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84: 3673-3680.
Teerds KJ, de Rooij DG and Keijer J. Functional relationship between obesity and male reproduction: from humans to animal models. Hum Reprod Update. 2011; 17: 667-683.
Giagulli VA, Kaufman JM and Vermeulen A. Pathogenesis of the decreased androgen levels in obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994; 79: 997-1000.
Trinder P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen receptor, Ann. Clin. Biochem. 1969; 6: 24-27.
Judzewitsch RG, Pfeifer MA, Best JD, Beard JC, Helter JB and Porte DJ. Chronic Chlorpropamide therapy of noninsulin-dependent augments basal and stimulated insulin secretion islet sensitivity to glucose. J. Clin. End. Metab. 1982; 55(2): 321-328.
Yalow RS and Berson S A. Principles of Competitive Protein-Binding Assays (Odell, W. D. & Daughaday, W. H., eds.), Lippincott, Philadelphia. 1971; pp: l- 21.
Odell WD, Parlow AF. Estimation of FSH Test Assay. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1981; 47: 25-51.
Kosase TS. Measurement of human luteinizing hormone. J. Reprod. Med. 1981; 26: 201-206.
Kicklighter EJ and Norman RJ. The Gonads. J. Clin. Chem. 1989; 43: 658-660.
Hahlin M, Wallin A, Sjöblom P and Lindblom B. Single Progesterone Assay for Early Recognition of Abnormal Pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1990; 5(5): 22-626.
Wramsby H, Sundstrom P and Liedholm P. Pregnancy rate in relation to number of cleaved eggs replaced after in-vitro fertilization in stimulated cycles monitored by serum levels of oestradiol and progesterone as sole index. Human Reproduction. 1987; 2: 325-328.
Edwards CRW, Baird FD and Toft AD. Endocrine and metabolic disease. In: Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine. A textbook for students and doctors. Edwards CRW, Bouchier IDA. 16th edition. Churchil Livingstone, Hong Kong. 1991: 607-698.
Ward WK, Beard JC, Halter JB, Pfeifer MA and Porte D. Pathophysiology of insulin secretion in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1984; 7: 491-502.
Bruttomesso D, Pianta A and Mari A. Restoration of early rise in plasma insulin levels improves the glucose tolerance of type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 1999; 48: 99-105.
Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, Savage PT and Bennett PH. Diabetes incidence in Pina Indians: contribution of obesity and parental diabetes. Amer. J. Epidemiol. 1981; 113(2): 144-156.
Perry IJ, Wannamethee SG, Walker MK, Thomson AG, Whincup PH and Shaper AG. Prospective study of risk factors for development of non-insulin dependent diabetes in middle aged British men. B M J. 1995; 310: 560-564.
Ruan H and Lodish HF. Regulation of insulin sensitivity by adipose tissue-derived hormones and infl ammatory cytokines. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2004; 15: 297-302.
McGarry JD. Dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism in the etiology of Type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2001; 5: 7-18.
Pan DA, Lillioja S and Kriketos AD. Skeletal muscle triglyceride levels are inversely related to insulin action. Diabetes. 1997: 983-988.
Speakman JR. Obesity: the integrated roles of environment and genetics. J Nutr. 2004; 134: 2090-2105.
Fruchart JC, Sacks F, Hermans MP, Assmann G, Brown V, Ceska R, Chapman MJ, Dodson PM, Fioretto P, Ginsberg HN, Kadowaki T, Lablanche JM, Marx N, Plutzky J, Reiner Z, Rosenson RS, Staels B, Stock JK, Sy R, Wanner C, Zambon A and Zimmet P. Executive statement: The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative: A call to action to reduce residual vascular risk in dyslipidemic patients A condensed position paper by the Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3i). Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2008; 5: 319-333.
Poitout V and Robertson RP. Minireview: Secondary beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes– a convergence of glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. Endocrinology. 2002; 143: 339-342.
Colhoun HM, Betteridge DJ and Durrington PN. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with atorvastatin in Type 2 diabetes in the Collaborative Atorvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2004; 364(9435): 685-696.
Baccetti B, la Marc A, Piomboni P, Capitani S, Bruni E, Felice Petraglia F and De Leo V. Insulin-dependent diabetes in men is associated with hypothalamo-pituitary derangement and with impairment in semen quality. Human Reproduction. 2002; 17(10): 2673–2677.
Hussein Z and Al-Qaisi J. Effect of diabetes mellitus type 2 on pituitary gland hormones (FSH, LH) in men and women in Iraq. J. Al-Nahr. Univer., Science. 2012; 15(3): 75-79.
Onah CE, Meludu SC, Dioka CE, Onuegbu JA, Amah UK, Olisekodiaka MJ, Okwara JE, Onah CF and Ezeugwunne IP. Pattern of male sex horones in type 2 diabetic patient in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria. 2013; 10(4): 65-70.
Verma S, Saxena S, Kushwaha JS, Giri R, Priyadarshi BP and Singh P. Serum testosterone levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus. JIACM. 2013; 14(2): 115-118.
Dhindsa S, Prabhakar S, Seth M, Bandyopadhyay A, Chaudhuri A and Dandona P. Frequent Occurrence of Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Type 2 Diabetes. J. Clin. Endoc. Metab. 2004; 89(11): 5462-5468.
Esmaeel AK. Relationships between diabetes mellitus type 2 and male testosterone level. 2013; 21(1): 56-62.
Ballester J, Muñoz MC, Domínguez J, Rigau T, Guinovart JJ and Rodríguez-Gil JE. Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Affects Testicular Function by FSH- and LH-Linked Mechanisms. J. 2004; 25(5): 706-719.
Simard J, Ricketts ML, Gingras S, Soucy P, Feltus FA and Melner MH. Molecular biology of the 3 eta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta5-delta4 isomerase gene family. Endocr. Rev. 2005; 26(4): 525-582.
Acevedo CG, Carrasco G, Burotto M, Ro-Jas S and Bravo I. Ethanol inhibits L-arginine uptake and enhances NO formation in human placenta. Life Sci. 2001; 68: 2893-2903.
Khowailed A, Mohammad O, Elattar S and Gaber S. Effect of Sildenafil on gonadotrophin and sex steroids in fructose induced diabetes in female rats. Med. J. Cairo Univ. 2012; 80(2): 243-252.
Maric C, Forsblom C, Thorn L, Johan Wadén J and Groop P. Association between testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone binding globulin levels in men with type 1 diabetes with nephropathy. Steroids. 2010; 75(11): 772-778.
Maffeim L, Muratam Y, Rochira V, Tubert G, Aranda C, Vazquez M, Clyne CD, Davis S, Simpson ER and Carani C. Dysmetabolic syndrome in a man with a novel mutation of the aromatase gene effects of testosterone, alendronate, and estradiol treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004; 89: 61-70.
Li H and Yu X. Emerging role of JNK in insulin resistance. Current Diabetes Reviews. 2013; 9(5): 422-428.
Lopez-Grueso R, Gambini J, Abdelaziz KM, Monleon D, Diaz A, El-Alami M, Bonet-Costa V, Borras C and Vina J. Early, but not late onset estrogen replacement therapy prevents oxidative stress and metabolic alterations caused by ovariectomy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2014; 20: 236-246.
Haas E, Bhattacharya I, Brailoiu E, Damjanovic M, Brailoiu GC, Gao X, Mueller-Guerre L, Marjon NA, Gut A, Minotti R, Meyer MR, Amann K, Ammann E, Perez-Dominguez A, Genoni M, Clegg DJ, Dun NJ, Resta TC, Prossnitz ER, Barton M. Regulatory role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor for vascular function and obesity. Circ Res. 2009; 104: 288-291.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931