Please enter verification code
Effect of Osteoblasts Cell Adhesion Behavior on Biomaterial Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscope
Advances in Applied Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 1, March 2020, Pages: 1-10
Received: Oct. 26, 2019; Accepted: Nov. 29, 2019; Published: Mar. 23, 2020
Views 472      Downloads 38
Afrina Khan Piya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka City, Japan
Munshi Muhammad Raihan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka City, Japan
Md Alamgir Hossain, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Article Tools
Follow on us
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a great scientific invention that can visualize cell morphology in aqueous environment and provide information to investigate cell biomechanics at a high spatial resolution in a controlled environment with force sensitivity. Contemporary AFM techniques permit solving a number of problems of cell biomechanics due to synchronized evaluation of the local mechanical properties. For characterizing mechanical properties force spectroscopy is used that provides information on cellular structures including cytoskeleton structure and morphology. For the success of biomedical implant, the most crucial factor is biocompatibility and osteo-conductivity of the implant material that can be characterized by the change in mechanical properties of cellular filaments and nucleus determined by exploiting atomic force microscope techniques. Hydroxyapatite is a bioactive material in bio-ceramics, hence used for fillers, bone grafts and metallic implant coating. Recently developed HAp/amino acid fluorescent complexes could be a significant candidate to be used for dental implant, had shown antibacterial properties with visible light irradiation. This study aims at revealing murine osteoblasts cell (MC3T3) adhesion behavior on the HAp coating and HAp/amino acid complexes. The AFM revealed that no significant changes were observed in mechanical properties of the osteoblasts cells when adhered on electrochemically deposited HAp coating and HAp/amino acid ligands complex coating. SEM and EDX analysis revealed cell morphology were identical for HAp and HAp/amino acid ligands complex coating. Such characteristics are desirable for the success of implant biomaterial coating that can preserve both antibacterial property and cell adhesion behavior.
Dental Implant, Antibacterial Property, HAp/Amino Acid Complex, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Cell Elasticity, CIP, Cytoskeleton Dynamics, Biomaterials
To cite this article
Afrina Khan Piya, Munshi Muhammad Raihan, Md Alamgir Hossain, Effect of Osteoblasts Cell Adhesion Behavior on Biomaterial Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscope, Advances in Applied Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2020, pp. 1-10. doi: 10.11648/j.aas.20200501.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ketaki Deshmukh, Sutapa Roy Ramanan, Meenal Kowshik. Novel one step transformation method for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using arginine-glucose functionalized hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 96, 58-65, 2019.
Mitsuo Niinomi. Mechanical properties of biomedical titanium alloys. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 243 (1–2): 231–236, 1998.
Mitsuo Niinomi. Mechanical biocompatibilities of titanium alloys for biomedical applications. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 1 (1): 30–42, 2008.
T. W. Bauer and J. Schils. The pathology of total joint arthroplasty ii. Mechanisms of implant failure. Skeletal radiology, 28 (9): 483–497, 1999.
A. Remes and D. F. Williams. Immune response in biocompatibility. Biomaterials, 13 (11): 731–743, 1992.
B. ˇR´ıhov´a. Biocompatibility of biomaterials: Hemocompatibility, immunocompatibility and biocompatibility of solid polymeric materials and soluble targetable polymeric carriers. Advanced Drug Delivery References 52.
E. Fournier, C. Passirani, C. N. Montero-Menei, and J. P. Benoit. Biocompatibility of implantable synthetic polymeric drug carriers: Focus on brain biocompatibility. Biomaterials, 24 (19): 3311–3331, 2003.
P. Thevenot, W. Hu, and L. Tang. Surface chemistry influences implant biocompatibility. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 8 (4): 270–280, 2008.
F. Var´ıola, F. Vetrone, L. Richert, P. Jedrzejowski, J. -H. Yi, S. Zalzal, S. Clair, A. Sarkissian, D. F. Perepichka, J. D. Wuest, F. Rosei, and A. Nanci. Improving biocompatibility of implantable metals by nanoscale modification of surfaces: An overview of strategies, fabrication methods, and challenges. Small, 5 (9): 996–1006, 2009.
J. D. Bryers, C. M. Giachelli, and B. D. Ratner. Engineering biomaterials to integrate and heal: The biocompatibility paradigm shifts. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 109 (8): 1898–1911, 2012.
S. Agarwal, J. Curtin, B. Duffy, and S. Jaiswal. Biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopaedic applications: A review on corrosion, biocompatibility and surface modifications. Materials Science and Engineering C, 68: 948–963, 2016.
L. Reeve and P. Baldrick. Biocompatibility assessments for medical devices–evolving regulatory considerations. Expert Review of Medical Devices, 14 (2): 161–167, 2017.
Jr. Aduba, D. C. and H. Yang. Polysaccharide fabrication platforms and biocompatibility assessment as candidate wound dressing.
D. A. Mbeh, R. Franac¸ a, Y. Merhi, X. F. Zhang, T. Veres, E. Sacher, and L. Yahia. In vitro biocompatibility assessment of functionalized magnetite nanoparticles: Biological and cytotoxicological effects. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research–Part A, 100 A (6): 1637–1646, 2012.
Robert B. Heimann. Thermal spraying of biomaterials. Surface and Coatings Technology, 201 (5): 2012–2019, 2006.
J. H. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. K. Kim, T. Akaike, and S. C. Kim. Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite crystals: A review study on the analytical methods. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 62 (4): 600–612, 2002.
S. Overgaard, U. Bromose, M. Lind, C. B?nger, and K. S?balle. The influence of crystallinity of the hydroxyapatite coating on the fixation of implants. mechanical and histomorphometric results. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery–Series B, 81 (4): 725–731, 1999.
Carlos Nelson Elias, Felipe Assis Rocha, Ana Lucia Nascimento, and Paulo Guilherme Coelho. Influence of implant shape, surface morphology, surgical technique and bone quality on the primary stability of dental implants. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 16: 169–180, 2012.
Iman Hejazi, Javad Seyfi, Ehsan Hejazi, Gity Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Seyed Hassan Jafari, and Hossein Ali Khonakdar. Investigating the role of surface micro/nano structure in cell adhesion behavior of superhydrophobic polypropylene/nanosilica surfaces. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 127: 233–240, 2015.
Stuart B. Goodman, Zhenyu Yao, Michael Keeney, and Fan Yang. The future of biologic coatings for orthopaedic implants. Biomaterials,
Jordan Raphel, Mark Holodniy, Stuart B. Goodman, and Sarah C. Heilshorn. Multifunctional coatings to simultaneously promote osseointegration and prevent infection of orthopaedic implants. Biomaterials, 84: 301–314, 2016.
Hiroyuki Akiyama and Nobuhiro Hata. Introduction to Scanning Probe microscope. Ohmsha, Ltd., 2013.
G. H. Enevoldsen, T. Glatzel, M. C. Christensen, J. V. Lauritsen, and F. Besenbacher. Atomic scale kelvin probe force microscopy studies of the surface potential variations on the TiO2 (110) surface. Phys. Rev. Lett., 100: 236104, Jun 2008.
Claudio Canale, Alessia Petrelli, Marco Salerno, Alberto Diaspro, and Silvia Dante. A new quantitative experimental approach to investigate single cell adhesion on multifunctional substrates. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 48 (Supplement C): 172–179, 2013.
E. Birkenhauer and S. Neethirajan. Characterization of electrical surface properties of mono–and co-cultures of pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus using kelvin probe force microscopy. RSC Advances, 4 (80): 42432–42440, 2014.
Tze-Wen Chung, Der-Zen Liu, Sin-YaWang, and Shoei-ShenWang. Enhancement of the growth of human endothelial cells by surface roughness at nanometer scale. Biomaterials, 24 (25): 4655–4661, 2003.
X. Yao, J. Walter, S. Burke, S. Stewart, M. H. Jericho, D. Pink, R. Hunter, and T. J. Beveridge. Atomic force microscopy and theoretical considerations of surface properties.
N´uria Gavara. A beginner’s guide to atomic force microscopy probing for cell mechanics. Microscopy Research and Technique, 80 (1): 75–84, 2017.
Junjian Chen, Yuchen Zhu, Yancheng Song, Lin Wang, Jiezhao Zhan, Jingcai He, Jian Zheng, Chunting Zhong, Xuetao Shi, Sa Liu, Li Ren, and YingjunWang. Preparation of an antimicrobial surface by direct assembly of antimicrobial peptide with its surface binding activity. J. Mater. Chem. B, 5: 2407–2415, 2017.
F. Zuttion, C. Ligeour, O. Vidal, M. Walte, F. Morvan, S. Vidal, J.-J. Vasseur, Y. Chevolot, M. Phaner-Goutorbe, and H. Schillers. The anti-adhesive effect of glycoclusters on: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria adhesion to epithelial cells studied by afm single cell force spectroscopy. Nanoscale, 10 (26): 12771–12778, 2018.
Wen Zhang, Andrew G. Stack, and Yongsheng Chen. Interaction force measurement between e. coli cells and nanoparticles immobilized surfaces by using afm. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 82 (2): 316–324, 2011.
Q. Huang, H. Wu, P. Cai, J. B. Fein, and W. Chen. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles. Scientific Reports, 5, 2015.
M. Tanaka, T. Hayashi, and S. Morita. The roles of water molecules at the biointerface of medical polymers. Polymer Journal, 45 (7): 701–710, 2013.
G. T. Charras, P. P. Lehenkari, and M. A. Horton. Atomic force microscopy can be used to mechanically stimulate osteoblasts and evaluate cellular strain distributions. Ultramicroscopy, 86 (1-2): 85.
D. Docheva, D. Padula, C. Popov, W. Mutschler, H. Clausen-Schaumann, and M. Schieker. Researching into the cellular shape, volume and elasticity of mesenchymal stem cells, osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells by atomic force microscopy: Stem cells. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 12 (2): 537–552, 2008.
J. Domke, S. Dann¨ohl, W. J. Parak, O. M¨uller, W. K. Aicher, and M. Radmacher. Substrate dependent differences in morphology and elasticity of living osteoblasts investigated by atomic force microscopy. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 19 (4): 367–379, 2000.
A. Simon, T. Cohen-Bouhacina, M. C. Port´e, J. P. Aim´e, J. Am´ed´ee, R. Bareille, and C. Baquey. Characterization of dynamic cellular adhesion of osteoblasts using atomic force microscopy. Cytometry Part A, 54 (1): 36–47, 2003.
E. Takai, K. D. Costa, A. Shaheen, C. T. Hung, and X. E. Guo. Osteoblast elastic modulus measured by atomic force microscopy is substrate dependent. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 33 (7): 963–971, 2005.
Federico Caneva Soumetz, Jose F. Saenz, Laura Pastorino, Carmelina Ruggiero, Daniele Nosi, and Roberto Raiteri. Investigation of integrin expression on the surface of osteoblast-like cells by atomic force microscopy. Ultramicroscopy, 110 (4): 330–338, 2010.
Y. Yamato, M. Matsukawa, H. Mizukawa, T. Yanagitani, K. Yamazaki and A. Nagano, Distribution of hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation and ultrasonic wave velocity in ring-shaped cortical bone of bovine femur. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 55 (6), 1298-1303, 2008.
Adnan Haider, Sajjad Haider, Sung Soo Han, Inn-Kyu Kang. Recent advances in the synthesis, functionalization and biomedical applications of hydroxyapatite: a review. RSC Advances, 7 (13), 7442-7458, 2017.
Cosmin M. Cotrut, Alina Vladescu, Mihaela Dinu, and Diana M. Vranceanu. Influence of deposition temperature on the properties of hydroxyapatite obtained by electrochemical assisted deposition. Ceramics International, 44 (1): 669–677, 2018.
Somtirtha Banerjee, Biswajoy Bagchi, Suman Bhandary, Arpan Kool, Nur Amin Hoque, Prosenjit Biswas, Kunal Pal, Pradip Thakur, Kaustuv Das, Parimal Karmakar, Sukhen Das. Antimicrobial and biocompatible fluorescent hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposite films for biomedical applications. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 171, 300-307, 2018.
Ewa P. Wojcikiewicz, Xiaohui Zhang, and Vincent T. Moy. Force and compliance measurements on living cells using atomic force microscopy (afm). Biological Procedures Online, 6 (1): 1–9, Jan 2004.
A. Hashimoto, Y. Yamaguchi, L.-D. Chiu, C. Morimoto, K. Fujita, M. Takedachi, S Kawata, S. Murakami, and E. Tamiya. Time-lapse raman imaging of osteoblast differentiation. Scientific Reports, 5, 2015.
L. Sun, C. C. Berndt, K. A. Gross, A. Kucuk, Material fundamentals and clinical performance of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings: a review, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 58 (5) (2001) 570–592.
R. B. Heimann, Thermal spraying of biomaterials, Surf. Coat. Technol. 201 (5) (2006) 2012–2019.
K. Ozeki, Y. Fukui, H. Aoki, Hydroxyapatite coated dental implants by sputtering technique, Biocybernetics Biomed. Eng. 26 (1) (2006) 95–101.
M. Wei, A. Ruys, B. Milthorpe, C. Sorrell, J. Evans, Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite coatings on metal substrates: a nanoparticulate dual-coating approach, J. Sol-Gel. Sci. Technol. 21 (1) (2001) 39–48.
Atyana G. Kuznetsova, Maria N. Starodubtseva, Nicolai I. Yegorenkov, Sergey A. Chizhik, Renat I. Zhdanov, Atomic force microscopy probing of cell elasticity, Micron, Volume 38, Issue 8, 2007, Pages 824-83351.
Alam, Fahad & Balani, Kantesh. (2016). Adhesion Force of Staphylococcus aureus on Various Biomaterial Surfaces. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials.
Shuli Zeng, Ronghui Zhou, Xiaoke Zheng, Lan Wu, Xiandeng Hou. Mono-dispersed Ba 2+–doped Nano-hydroxyapatite conjugated with near-infrared Cu-doped CdS quantum dots for CT/fluorescence bimodal targeting cell imaging. Microchemical Journal, 134, 41-48, 2017.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186